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List of the largest explosive eruptions on earth

List of the largest explosive eruptions on earth

(Mason et al. 2004)

Caldera Name Name of Unit Caldera Diameter (km) Published Volume (km3) Density (kg.m-3) DRE Volume (km3) Mass (kg) Magnitude Date (ma) Reference
La Garita (Colorado, USA) Fish Canyon Tuff 100x35 5000 2200 4500 1.2E+16 9.1 27.8 Lipman et al. 1997
Toba (Indonesia) Younger Toba Tuff 100x30 2800 2400 2700 6.9E+15 8.8 0.074 Rose and Chesner 1987
Unknown Lund Tuff N/A 2600 2400 2500 6.4E+15 8.8 29 Maughan et al. 2002
Yellowstone (Wyoming, USA) Huckleberry Ridge Tuff 100x50 2500 2200 2200 5.5E+15 8.7 2 Christiansen 1984
La Pacana (Chile) Atana Ignimbrite 60x35 1600 2400 1600 3.9E+15 8.6 4 Lindsay et al. 2001
Unknown Millbrig-Big Bentonite N/A 1509 2400 1500 3.7E+15 8.6 454 Huff et al. 1996
Unknown Green Tuff + SAM N/A 3000 1200 1500 3.6E+15 8.6 28-30 Ukstins et al. 2003 (in press)
Blacktail (Snake River Plain, USA) Blacktail Tuff 100x60 1500 2200 1300 3.4E+15 8.5 6.5 Morgan et al. 1984
Emory (New Mexico, USA) Kneeling Nun Tuff 25x55 1310 2200 1200 3.2E+15 8.5 33 Elston et al. 1975
Bachelor (Colorado, USA) Carpenter Ridge Tuff 20x28 1200 2200 1100 2.9E+15 8.5 27.5 Lipman et al. 1973
Timber Mountain (Nevada, USA) Timber Mountain Tuff - Rainier Mesa Member 25x30 1200 2200 1100 2.9E+15 8.5 11.6 Farmer et al. 1991
Paintbrush (Nevada, USA) Paintbrush Tuff - Topopah Spring Member 20 1200 2200 1100 2.9E+15 8.5 13.4 Farmer et al. 1991
Bursum (New Mexico, USA) Apache Springs Tuff 30x40 1200 2200 1100 2.9E+15 8.5 29-28 Ratte et al. 1984
Cerro Galan (Argentina) Cerro Galan Ignimbrite 32 1000 2400 980 2.5E+15 8.4 5.4-2.5 Sparks et al. 1985
Unknown Kinnekulle Betonite N/A 972 2400 950 2.4E+15 8.4 454 Huff et al. 1996
Bursum (New Mexico, USA) Bloodgood Canyon Tuff 30x40 1050 2200 940 2.5E+15 8.4 29-28 Ratte et al. 1984
Unknown Deicke Bentonite N/A 943 2400 920 2.3E+15 8.4 454 Huff et al. 1996
Uncompahgre (Colorado, USA) Dillon/Sapinero mesa 20x23 1000 2200 900 2.4E+15 8.4 28.5 Lipman et al. 1973
San Juan (Colorado, USA) Sapinero Mesa Tuff 22x24 1000 2200 900 2.4E+15 8.4 28.5 Lipman et al. 1973
Paintbrush (Nevada, USA) Paintbrush Tuff - Tiva Canyon Member 20 1000 2200 900 2.4E+15 8.4 12.9 Farmer et al. 1991
Chinati (Texas, USA) Mitchel Mesa Rhyolite 20x30 1000 2200 900 2.4E+15 8.4 32-33 Henry and Price 1984
Yellowstone (Wyoming, USA) Lava Creek Tuff 85x45 1000 2200 900 2.2E+15 8.3 0.6 Christiansen 1984
Timber Mountain (Nevada, USA) Timber Mountain Tuff - Ammonia Tanks Member 25x30 900 2200 810 2.1E+15 8.3 11.4 Farmer et al. 1991
Porsea (Toba, Indonesia) Oldest Toba Tuff 100x30 820 2400 800 2.0E+15 8.3 0.79 Lee et al. 2004
Kilgore (Snake River Plain, USA) Kilgore Tuff 60x80 800 2200 710 1.9E+15 8.3 4.3 Morgan et al. 1984
Cerro Panizos (Argentina/Bolivia) Panizos Ignimbrite 18 652 2400 640 1.6E+15 8.2 6.1 Ort 1993
Unknown (Texas, USA) Barrel Springs Formation N/A 675 2200 610 1.6E+15 8.2 36 Parker and McDowell 1979
Unknown (Texas, USA) Wild Cherry Formation N/A 675 2200 610 1.6E+15 8.2 36 Parker and McDowell 1979
Pastos Grandes (Bolivia) Sifon Ignimbrite 40x50 1200 1200 590 1.5E+15 8.2 8.3 De Silva 1990
Unknown (Bolivia) Huaylillas Ignimbrite 10 1100 1200 540 1.3E+15 8.1 5 De Silva 1990
Platoro (Colorado, USA) La Jara Canyon Member 18x22 592 2200 530 1.4E+15 8.1 30 Lipman 1975
Taupo (New Zealand) Oruanui 35x25 530 2400 520 1.3E+15 8.1 0.0265 Wilson 2001
San Luis (Colorado, USA) Nelson Mountain Tuff 18 562 2200 510 1.3E+15 8.1 27 Steven and Lipman 1976
Cerro Galan (Argentina) Real Grande and Cueva Negra 32 510 2400 500 1.2E+15 8.1 4.2 Francis et al. 1989
Turkey Creek (Arizona, USA) Rhyolite Canyon Formation 21 500 2200 450 1.2E+15 8.1 25 Latta 1983
Tucson Mountain (Arizona, USA) Cat Mountain Rhyolite 25 500 2200 450 1.2E+15 8.1 73 Hooper 2000
Long Valley (California, USA) Bishop Tuff 20x35 500 2200 450 1.2E+15 8.1 0.7 Bailey et al. 1976
Minarets (California, USA) Unamed N/A 500 2200 450 1.2E+15 8.1 100 Fiske and Tobisch 1978
Creede (Colorado, USA) Snowshoe Mountain Tuff 24 500 2200 450 1.2E+15 8.1 27 Steven and Ratte 1965
Mount Hope (Colorado, USA) Masonic Park Tuff 15 500 2200 450 1.2E+15 8.1 29 Steven and Lipman 1976
Ute Creek (Colorado, USA) Ute Ridge Tuff 8 500 2200 450 1.2E+15 8.1 29 Steven and Lipman 1976
Twin Peaks (Idaho, USA) Challis Creek Tuff 20 500 2200 450 1.2E+15 8.1 45 Hardyman 1981
Cowboy Rim (New Mexico, USA) Gillespie Tuff 18x26 500 2200 450 1.2E+15 8.1 33 Erb 1979
Juniper (New Mexico, USA) Oak Creek Tuff 25 500 2200 450 1.2E+15 8.1 35 Erb 1979
Organ (New Mexico, USA) Cueva Soledad Rhyolite 16 500 2200 450 1.2E+15 8.1 32 Seager 1981
Socorro (New Mexico, USA) Hells Mesa Rhyolite 25x35 500 2200 450 1.2E+15 8.1 33 Osburn and Chapin 1983
Blue Creek (Snake River Plain, USA) Blue Creek Tuff 30x55 500 2200 450 1.2E+15 8.1 5.6 Morgan et al. 1984