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Eruptions that shook the world

Figures

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Chapter 1

1.1. Tectonic plates and distribution of volcanoes. Volcano
1.2. The Earth’s interior. Copyright: Elsevier. Volcano
1.3. Da’Ure volcano. Volcano
1.4. (a) x-ray image of pumice. Credit: Alain Burgisser. (b) Scanning electron microscope image of ash. Credit: A.M. Sarna-Wojcicki, USGS. Volcano

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1.5. Yellowstone ‘super-volcano’. Copyright: the Mineralogical Society of America. Volcano
1.6. Eyjafjallajökull in 2010. Credit: Evgenia Ilyinskaya. Volcano
1.7. Frequency versus magnitude plot for eruptions. Volcano

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Chapter 2

2.1. Mt St Helens on 18 May 1980. Credit: Robert Krimmel, USGS/CVO. Volcano
2.2. Sarychev Peak on 12 June 2009. Credit: NASA. Volcano
2.3. Eruption of Redoubt volcano in 1990. Credit: J. Warren, USGS. Volcano
2.4. Mont Pelée on 16 December 1902. From Lacroix, A., 1904. Volcano
2.5 Okmok volcano, Alaska. Credit: Cyrus Read, AVO/USGS. Volcano
2.6. St Pierre (a) before the 1902 eruption, and (b) after the eruption. From Lacroix, A., 1904. Volcano

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2.7. Victims at Herculaneum. Volcano
2.8. Lava flow on Kīlauea in 2007. Volcano
2.9. Tungurahua in Ecuador. Volcano
2.10. Soufrière Hills Volcano. Credit: NASA/JSC. Volcano
2.11. Akrotiri on Santorini (Greece). Volcano
2.12. Ambrym volcano, Vanuatu. Volcano
2.13 Toutle River Valley at Mt St Helens. Volcano

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Chapter 3

3.1. Pinatubo on 12 June, 1991. Credit: Rick Hobblitt, CVO/USGS. Volcano
3.2. 15–16 June 1991 Pinatubo eruption. Credit: Rick Holasek. Volcano
3.3. Sulphur dioxide and sulphuric acid in the Pinatubo cloud. Volcano

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3.4. Pinatubo dust seen on from the Space Shuttle. Credit: NASA-JSC. Volcano
3.5. Temperature anomalies for the lower troposphere after Pinatubo. Data from Remote Sensing Systems. Volcano

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Chapter 4

4.1. Pyroclastic current deposits on Lipari, Italy. Volcano
4.2. Isopach maps for the Ilopango eruption in El Salvador (dashed lines) and 84,000-year-old Los Chocoyos eruption, Guatemala. Credit: Steffen Kutterolf. Volcano
4.3. Correlation of tephra layer from two lake sediment cores. Credit: Christine Lane. Volcano
4.4. Fallout from the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption in a core from Lago Grande di Monticchio [44]. Credit: Sabine Wulf. Volcano
4.5. Electrical conductivity measurements of a Greenland ice core. Credit: Jørgen Peder Steffensen. Volcano
4.6. Volcanic sulphur emissions to the stratosphere from 501–2000 CE. Data here. Volcano
4.7. Sulphate concentration in an ice core from Greenland. Based on data in [53]. Volcano
4.8. Bristlecone pines. Volcano
4.9. Volcanic forcing of climate revealed in tree rings. Credit: Mike Baillie. Volcano
4.10. Summer temperature anomalies. Credit: NOAA/NGDC. Volcano
4.11 Hemisphere temperature anomalies based on tree rings. Courtesy of Keith Briffa. Volcano

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Volcano

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Chapter 5

5.1. Street scene at Pompeii. Volcano
5.2. Map of Mesoamerica. Volcano
5.3. Building at Cerén. Volcano
5.4. Arenal volcano. Volcano
5.5. Part of a decorated Lapita pot. Credit: Stuart Bedford. Volcano
5.6. Map of the Willaumez peninsula. Based on [65]. Volcano
5.7. (a) Excavation on Willaumez Peninsula. Credit: Jim Specht, Australian Museum. (b) Obsidian stemmed tools. Credit: Georgia Brittain, Australian Museum. Volcano

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5.8. Crater Lake, Oregon. Volcano
5.9. Wall painting from Çatalhöyük. Based on a drawing by Grace Huxtable. Volcano
5.10. Dubbi volcano, Eritrea (a) seen from the north. (b) A section of pyroclastic deposits. Volcano

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5.11. The footprints of Acahualinca in Managua, Nicaragua. Volcano

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Chapter 6

6.1. Large Igneous Provinces. Credit: [88] and copyright of Elsevier. Volcano
6.2. The Ethiopian flood basalts. Volcano
6.3. Volcanism of the Réunion–Deccan plume. Credit: [87] and copyright of the Mineralogical Society of America. Volcano
6.4. Ages of the 15 major flood basalts compared with mass extinctions. Data from [100]. Volcano
6.5. Rate of magnetic reversals compared with major extinctions and flood eruptions. From [100] and copyright of Elsevier. Volcano

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Chapter 7

7.1. Nabro volcano in Eritrea. Volcano
7.2. Ice-core derived temperature anomalies for Antarctica. Source: NOAA. Volcano

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Chapter 8

8.1. The Toba caldera. Credit: NASA. Volcano
8.2. Younger Toba Tuff fallout. Courtesy of Emma Gatti. Volcano
8.3. GISP2 sulphate record and oxygen isotopic variation. Credit: Quaternary Isotope Laboratory, University of Washington and NCDC/NOAA. Volcano
8.4. Imprint of a leaf at the top of the Toba ash fallout layer. Volcano
8.5. Toba ash at Jwalapuram. Volcano

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Chapter 9

9.1. The Campanian Plain and Bay of Naples. Credit: ASTER Volcano Archive NASA/JPL. Volcano
9.2. Fallout from the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption. Modified from [157] and copyright of Elsevier. Volcano
9.3. Excavation at Kostenki′ in Russia. Courtesy of Andrey Sinitsyn. Volcano
9.4. Cultural materials found within the Campanian Ignimbrite ash layer at Kostenki′. Courtesy of Andrey Sinitsyn. Volcano
9.5. Pyroclastic rocks from the Laacher See eruption. Credit: Felix Riede. Volcano
9.6. Isopach map for the Laacher See eruption. From [160] and copyright of Elsevier. Volcano
9.7. (a) Federmesser point. (b) Bromme point. Courtesy of Felix Riede. Volcano

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9.8 Santorini caldera. Volcano
9.9. Akrotiri site, Santorini. Volcano
9.10. Map of fallout from the Minoan eruption. Adapted from [173]. Volcano

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Chapter 10

10.1. View of Popocatépetl. Credit: Marie Boichu. Volcano
10.2. Tetimpa house. Credit: Patricia Plunket and Gabriela Uruñuela. Volcano
10.3. Effigy volcano shrine at a Tetimpa. Credit: Patricia Plunket and Gabriela Uruñuela. Volcano
10.4. Central Mexico. Updated from [180] with new information from Robert Dull. Volcano
10.5. Teotihuacán’s pyramids. Volcano
10.6. Lake Ilopango in El Salvador. Credit: ASTER Volcano Archive, NASA JPL. Volcano
10.7. Region affected by the Tierra Blanca Joven eruption. Modified from [187] and copyright of Elsevier. Volcano

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Chapter 11

11.1. Mosaic from San Vitale, Ravenna. Volcano
11.2. Flagellants. From the chronicle of Aegidius Li Muisis (1272–1327). Volcano

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Chapter 12

12.1. Part of the Laki crater row. Volcano
12.2. Lava flows in the Skaftá valley. Volcano
12.3. Map of the Laki lava flows. Credit: Þorvaldur Þórðarson. Volcano
12.4. Temperature anomalies for July 1783 and winter 1783/1784. Credit: Luke Oman. Volcano

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12.5. Restoration of the Charles Bridge. Credit: Museum of the City of Prague. Volcano
12.6. Iceland demography around time of Laki eruption. Volcano
12.7. Mortality in England in late 18th Century. Data courtesy of Claire Witham. Volcano

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Chapter 13

Figure 13.1. Satellite image of Indonesia. Credit: NASA. Volcano

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Figure 13.2. Isopach map for fallout from the Tambora 1815 eruption. Volcano
Figure 13.3. Length of growing season in southern Maine. Based on data in [249]. Volcano
Figure 13.4. Indices of grain prices in Europe and North America. Data from Post, J.D., 1977]. Volcano

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Chapter 14

Figure 14.1. One of Hokusai’s Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji (circa 1827). Volcano
Figure 14.2. Aerial view of the Neapolitan region. Volcano
Figure 14.3. Herculaneum. Volcano

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Appendix A: The 25 largest documented Holocene eruptions (magnitude Me of 6.5 and above)

See also the Smithsonian Institution’s Global Volcanism Program database.

  Volcano & location Image credit
15.01 Fisher Caldera, Aleutian Islands J. Gardner, AVO / USGS Volcano
15.02 Kurile Lake, Kamchatka ASTER Volcano Archive, NASA JPL Volcano
15.03 Kikai, Ryuku Islands ASTER Volcano Archive, NASA JPL Volcano
15.04 Mazama, Oregon   Volcano
15.05 ?Kuwae (disputed), Vanuatu ASTER Volcano Archive, NASA JPL) Volcano
15.06 Ilopango, El Salvador ISS021-E-23475, NASA Volcano
15.07 Tambora, Indonesia ISS020-E-6563, NASA Volcano
15.08 Santorini, Greece ASTER Volcano Archive, NASA JPL Volcano
15.09 Menengai, Kenya   Volcano
15.10 Okmok II, Aleutian Islands J. Reeder. Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys Volcano
15.11 Lvinaya Past, Kurile Islands ASTER Volcano Archive, NASA JPL Volcano
15.12 Ambrym, Vanuatu   Volcano
15.13 Changbaishan / Baekdu, China / North Korea ISS006-E-43366, NASA Volcano
15.14 Taupo, New Zealand ASTER Volcano Archive, NASA JPL Volcano
15.15 Quilotoa, Ecuador   Volcano
15.16 Aniakchak II, Alaska M. Williams, National Park Service Volcano
15.17 Veniaminof, Alaska ASTER Volcano Archive, NASA JPL Volcano
15.18 Okmok I, Aleutian Islands Jessica Larsen, AVO/UAF-GI Volcano
15.19 Katmai, Alaska Cyrus Read, AVO / USGS Volcano
15.20 Krakatau, Indonesia   Volcano
15.21 Tao-Rusyr Caldera, Kurile Islands ASTER Volcano Archive, NASA JPL Volcano
15.22 Aniakchak I, Alaska Game McGimsey, AVO / USGS Volcano
15.23 Long Island, Papua New Guinea ASTER Volcano Archive, NASA JPL Volcano
15.24 Witori, Papua New Guinea ASTER Volcano Archive, NASA JPL Volcano
15.25 Black Peak, Alaska Jennifer Adleman, AVO / USGS Volcano