Janice Stargardt, MA DLett
Affiliated Lecturer, Professorial Research Fellow in Asian Historical Archaeology & Geography, Fellow and Director of Studies at Sidney Sussex College
- 2006-: Professorial Research Fellow in Asian Historical Archaeology and Geography, Department of Geography, University of Cambridge.
- 2002-: concurrently, Fellow and Director of Studies in Archaeology, Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge.
- 1993-2006: PACSEA Senior Research Fellow (Readership level), Department of Geography, Cambridge.
- 1976-1993: Senior Research Fellow, Needham Institute, Cambridge.
- 1976 - 1998 : frequently, Directeur d'Etudes, in the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes IV and V, and the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Paris, in Southeast Asian Archaeology, Religion and Culture, respectively.
- 1975: British Academy Travelling Fellowship (in South East Asian Archaeology).
- 1970-74: Evans Fellow in South East Asian Archaeology, Department of Archaeology, Cambridge 1970-3, Evans Grantee 1974.
- 1969-70: Leverhulme Post-doctoral Fellow in South East Asian Archaeology, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Faculty of Letters, University of Tokyo.
- B.A. Melb., M.A. Cantab., D.Lett. Paris [Leverhulme Post-Doctoral Fellowship Dissertation on The Formative Stages of Civilisation in Burma, integrated into Doctorat-es-Lettres d'Etat, Arrete 1977 of Secretaire d'Etat aux Universites].
Janice Stargardt works on the historical geography and archaeology of South and South East Asia, especially on the long record of interactions between societies and their environments, and on the cultural and commercial exchanges between India, South East Asia and China. With her research group she carries out annual surveys and excavations in Burma and Thailand, where she has discovered ten archaeological sites, four ancient irrigation systems and a network of ancient navigation canals. Among a number of methodological innovations, she began to use satellite imagery for archaeological surveys in 1976--, and was the first in Thailand to integrate palynological evidence into her archaeological reports [1983--]. With her Thai and British colleagues, she has now captured a continuous record for the past 10,000 years of the changing structure of the ancient rainforest on the Kra Ecotone, with special emphasis on its economic plants. With colleagues, she has developed new applications for aerial photography and remote sensing to archaeological research in the humid tropics, producing new maps of her research areas which have been adopted by the Royal Ordinance Survey of Thailand, and the Department of Archaeology of Burma. They are widely used in teaching and research in Thailand, Burma and outside the region. She applies insights gained from the lengthy time perspectives of this research to the problems of environment and development in contemporary societies of the Third World, especially Asia. Thus research on the ancient irrigation system of Songkhla Province in South Thailand has led to its on-going rehabilitation, with positive impact on the farming families of the area.
The over-arching theme of Janice Stargardt's research has been the transition of societies in South-East India, Burma and Thailand from Iron Age villages to complex, literate and urbanized communities. Her research explores a range of factors: the natural environments - resources and stresses; the role of ancient irrigation in mitigating the latter; the contribution of maritime trade to prosperity; and the cultural cargoes that travelled with trade. In the 1970s and 1980s, she directed long-term excavations at the early historic sites of the Satingpra complex, South Thailand, which were engaged in high-value sea trade with South China, 10th-14th century. Through aerial and surface surveys and selective coring of the ancient irrigation systems in Thailand and Burma, she has shown that they were implicated in urban genesis and development at Halin, Beikthano, Sri Ksetra and Satingpra, from the late first millennium BCE and throughout the first millenium CE. Currently she is combining further work on maritime trade in Asia, tracing key examples of its value and volume from the 9th - 16th cent. and their significance, with research on the early spread of Buddhism with trade into South India and Burma. Her new evidence on Buddhism's complex encounters with indigenous religions challenges previous models of Indianisation, and supports the view that it was a long, multi-facetted process of reciprocal, creative and highly selective assimilations rather than the one-way cultural impositions once envisaged. In 2012-3, she was invited to spend eight months working with the Department of Archaeology of Burma, as co-author and general editor of the Nomination Dossier to the World Heritage Organisation for the three ancient Pyu cities to be inscribed on its list of sites of Outstanding Universal Value. This was funded by UNESCO.
Her research is supported, among others, by grants from the University of Cambridge and Sidney Sussex College, the British Academy, the Royal Society, the Natural and Environmental Research Council [NERC], The Ford, Lee and Chiang Ching-kuo Foundations, the Wenner-Gren Trust, the Department for International Development [DFID], the Research and Exploration Committee of the National Geographic Society of the United States, the British Association of South Asian Studies [BASAS], and the British Council offices in Thailand, Burma and Malaysia.
In the Department of Geography, Janice Stargardt cooperates with the following Research thematic groups:
Environmental Systems and Processes
With Professor Phil Gibbard and Thai colleagues from the Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai she works on Quaternary geological, biological and archaeological change in the Kra Ecotone of South Thailand, particularly the interactions between people, rainforests and cultivated plants within a changing geological context around the Songkhla Lakes. She is also collaborating with Dr Gabriel Amable in the development of new applications to satellite imagery to enhance the v detectability of ancient irrigation systems in tropical urban landscapes.
Natures, Cultures and Knowledges
A member of this Research thematic group , Janice Stargardt is coordinator of a British Academy research project on Relics and Relic Worship in Early Buddhism in India and Burma [2002-] now under the auspices of the British Academy as a Project of the British Association of South Asian Studies. She is concurrently conducting research on two other major projects: cultural change in South-East India and Burma, and pre-modern Asian maritime trade in the South China Sea and the Indian Ocean.
Books and Monographs
- Stargardt, J. (ed.) 2013: The Three Ancient Pyu Cities as Sites of Outstanding Universal Value; the Nomination Dossier to the World Heritage Organisation. Yangon, Ministry of Culture, Department of Archaeology, Museums and National Library.
- Stargardt, J. 2008: The Sea Unites; essays in the maritime archaeology and remote sensing of South East Asia. Cambridge, PACSEA, 210 pp (paperback).
- Stargardt, J. 2001: Resources - A Common Pool for Whom and How? A review of NRSP's past and current CPR-related projects. DFID NRSP Programme Development Report PD107, 31pp.
- Stargardt, J. 2000: Tracing Thought through Things: the Oldest Pali Texts and the Early Buddhist Archaeology of India and Burma. Seventh Annual Gonda Foundation Lecture 1999; [revised and expanded] Monograph of the Royal Netherlands Academy, Amsterdam, 2000, 60 pp., 23 figs. & pls.
- Stargardt, J 1990, 1991: The Ancient Pyu of Burma. Vol. I, Early Pyu Cities in a Man-Made Landscape. PACSEA, Cambridge, in association with ISEAS, Singapore, (hardcover) December 1990, (paperback) April 1991, xxix + 436 pp., 135 figs., 32 pls.
- 1993: Translated into Japanese, University of Tokyo, Faculty of Letters, Graduate Programme in South East Asian History
- 1994: Translated into Burmese, University of Yangon (Rangoon), Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology
- Stargardt, J. et al. 1988 : Histoire du paysage, archéologie et télédétection. [History of the Landscape, Archaeology and Remote Sensing], with Jacques, C., M. Terrasse. J. Legorgeu. Paris, EPHE/CNRS, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes IV, 1988, 98 pp., 12 figs, 19 pls.
- Stargardt, J. 1983: Satingpra I, the Environmental and Economic Archaeology of South Thailand. British Archaeological Reports (BAR), Oxford in association with the Institute of Southeast Asian Studies (ISEAS), Oxford, 1983, xxiii+381 pp., 66 figs. &. pls.
- Translated into Thai, Silapakorn University, Department of Archaeology
Selected Articles (2013-1992 only)
- Stargardt, J. 2013a: 'The Three Ancient Pyu Cities in Comparative Perspective,' in The Nomination Dossier to the World Heritage Organisation..., 29 pp.
- Stargardt, J. 2013b: 'Irrigation in South Thailand as a Coping Strategy against Climate Change: Past and Present,' in Schuler, B. (ed.): Environmental and Climate Change in South and Southeast Asia; how are local cultures coping? Leiden, E.J.Brill, Chapter Five (in press).
- Stargardt, J. and Amable, G. 2013c: 'Water from the Ancient City: a new method of satellite surveys of irrigation water at Sri Ksetra, Burma.' In Proceedings of the SEAMEO-SPAFA First Conference on Southeast Asian Archaeology, Bangkok, SPAFA (in press).
- Stargardt, J., Amable, G. and Devereux, B. 2012: 'Irrigation is Forever: a study of the post-destruction movement of water across the ancient site of Sri Ksetra, Central Burma,' in Lasaponara, R. and Masini, N. (eds.) Remote Sensing: a New Tool for Archaeology, 16. Dordrecht, Springer, Chapter 11.
- Stargardt, J. 2011: 'Dehua Ceramics in Long-Distance Trade in the Song-Yuan Period; excavations at Satingpra South Thailand,' in Cheng Jianzhong (ed.) Ceramics Capital of China; the Dehua Kilns. Quanzhou, Quanzhou Museum, 63-84.
- Stargardt, J. 2007: 'Buddhist Archaeology', Encyclopedia of Archaeology, Deborah Pearsall (Gen. Ed.) Elsevier/Academic Press, N.Y., Vol. 1, 670-83.
- Stargardt, J. 2005a: 'The Hindu-Buddhist Period', in Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia from Angkor Wat to East Timor. ABC-Clio.
- Stargardt, J. et al. 2005b: 'Holocene sea levels and palaeoenvironments, Malay-Thai Peninsula, southeast Asia', The Holocene, 15, 8, 1199-1213 (with R.P.Horton, P.L.Gibbard, G.M.Milne, R.J.Morley, C. Purintavaragul).
- Stargardt, J. 2005c: 'Death rituals of the late Iron Age and early Buddhism in Central Burmsa and South-East India - whose norms, whose practices?' in Im Dickicht der Gebote; Studien zur Dialektik von Norm und Praxis in der Buddhsismusgeschichte Asiens. Peter Schalk (Gen. Ed.), Uppsala, Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Historia Religionum 26, 407-33.
- Stargardt, J. et al 2004a: Poster with same title, presented at the Annual Conference of the American Geological Society.
- Stargardt, J. et al. 2004b: 'Reconstructing the Ancient Landscape of South Thailand by Means of Remote Sensing', (with Choathip Purintavaragul) invited paper, Conference on Remote Sensing Archaeology, Beijing October 2004, published online by the Institute of Remote Sensing Applications, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing. 13pp, 8 pls.
- Stargardt, J. and D. Twitchett 2004c: 'Chinese Silver Bullion in a Tenth-Century Indonesian Wreck', Asia Major (3rd Series), XV, I, 2002 [pub. 2004], 23-72. 14 Figs & Pls.
- Translated into Chinese, 'Chenchuan yibao: yisou shi shiyi Chenchuan shuang de Zhongguo yinding,' in Tang Yanjiu (Tang Studies - Beijing University), 2004, 383-431, 14 figs & pls.
- Stargardt, j. 2002-3: 'City of the Wheel, City of the Ancestors: spatial symbolism in a Pyu royal city of Burma', Indo-asiatische Zeitschrift [Berlin] 6/7, 144-167, 7 figs.
- Stargardt, J. 2003: 'Mapping the Mind; some cultural cargos of ancient South East Asian maritime trade', in Fishbones and Glittering Symbols Ed. A. Kallen, and A. Karlstrom, Stockholm, Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, 103-118, 22 figs. & pls.
- Stargardt, J. 2001a: 'The Historical Geography of Burma; the creation of enduring patterns in the Pyu period.' Newsletter of the International Institute of Asian Studies [IIAS], Leiden, July, Special Burma Issue, 2 figs.
- Stargardt, J. 2001b: 'The Great Silver Reliquary from Sri Ksetra: the oldest Buddhist art in Burma and one of the two oldest Pali inscriptions in the world,' in Festschrift for Professor J.G. de Casparis. (eds. K. van Kooij and M. Klokke). Groningen, Egbert Forster, 487-519, 13 pls.
- Stargardt, J. 2001c: 'Behind the Shadows: archaeological data on two-way sea-trade between Quanzhou and Satingpra, South Thailand, 10th-14th century,' in Emporium to the World: Quanzhou and Maritime Trade, 10th-14th century, (ed. Schottenhammer, A.). Leiden, E.J.Brill, 309-93, 23 figs, & pls., 4 tables.
- Stargardt, J. 2000 : 'Contrôles et contraintes socio-économiques des systèmes traditionnels d'irrigation et d'agriculture: le système d'Angkor dans les perspectives comparées,' in Angkor and Water/Angkor et l'Eau, (bi-lingual French/English, ed. UNESCO). Paris, UNESCO & EFEO, n.d. , 9 pp, 14 figs., 7 tables.
- Stargardt, J. 1999a: 'An Historical Atlas of South-East Asia, by Jan Pluvier,' Journal of Historical Geography, 25, 1, 104-6.
- Stargardt, J. and Choathip Purintavaragul 1999b: 'The Forests of the Kra Isthmus, South Thailand,' Royal Society South East Asian Rainforest Research Program Newsletter, December.
- Stargardt, J. 1998: 'Urbanization before Indianization at Beikthano, Central Burma,' in Southeast Asian Archaeology 1994. (Proceedings of the Conference of the European Association of Archaeologists of South East Asia), (ed. Manguin, P-Y.). Hull, Centre for South-East Asian Studies 1998, 126-138, 7 figs, 1 table.
- Stargardt, J. 1995: 'The Four Oldest Surviving Pali Texts: the Results of the Cambridge Symposium on the Golden Pali Text of Sri Ksetra (Burma), April 1995,' Journal of the Pali Text Society, 199-213.
- Stargardt, J. 1995 and 1998: 'Earth, Rice, Water: Three Essays in "Reading the Landscape" as Historical Record on Satingpra, South Thailand,' in Sediments of Time: Environment and Society in Chinese History , (eds. Elvin, M. and Liu T-j.). Taipei, Academia Sinica, 1995 (in Chinese, translated by Academia Sinica), 209-70, 10 figs., 14 tables.
- English version of above, in Nature and The Orient; the environmental history of South and Southeast Asia. (eds. Grove, R., V. Damodaran & Satpal Sangwan). Oxford & Delhi, Oxford University Press, 1998, 125-183, 7 figs., 14 tables.
- Stargardt, J. 1992a : 'Assimilations reciproques entre le rituel funéraire autochtone et le bouddhisme en Birmanie ancienne, du 2ème s. av. J.C. au 8ème s. ap. J.C,' Keynote Lecture for the Centenary of the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes V, Collège de France, 1987, in Le Rituel, vol. II, (eds. Schipper, K. & A.M.Blondeau). Louvain, Peeters, 1992a, 89-106, 10 figs.
- Stargardt, J. 1992b : 'Le cosmos, les ancêtres et le riz; l'eau dans l'espace urbain des pyus en birmanie,' in Disciplines croisées, hommage à Bernard-Philippe Groslier, (eds. Condominas G. et al.). Paris, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, 311-35, 13 figs.
- Stargardt, J. 1992c: 'Water for Court or Countryside? Archaeological Evidence from Central Burma and South Thailand Reconsidered,' in The Gift of Water, (ed. Riggs, J.). London, School of Oriental and African Studies, 59-72, 2 figs.
- Stargardt, J. 1992d: 'Muang Fa Daed: from prehistoric moated villages to Mon-Khmer style city; new archaeological studies of aerial images.' in Ancient Khmer Cities of Lower North-East Thailand, (eds. Ishizawa, Y. and T.Kano). Tokyo, Sophia University, Institute of Asian Culture, in association with the Fine Arts Department of Thailand, 107-128, 6 figs.
- Director of Studies and Supervisor in Part 1, Archaeology and Anthropology.
- Director of Studies and Supervisor in Part 11A and B, Archaeology and Biological Anthropology.
- Advises M..Phil. students in Environment and Development in South East Asia in the Department of Geography
- Advises Ph.D. students on South East Asian topics in the Department of Geography
- Advises Ph.D. students and Post-docs in Geo-archaeology, South, South East, and East Asian Archaeology in the McDonald Institute, Division of Archaeology, University of Cambridge.
- 2013, Visiting Professor in Burmese and South East Asian Archaeology, Department of Archaeology, University of Yangon [Rangoon], supported by the Open Society [Soros] Foundation.
- 2012-3, International Expert co-operating with the Department of Archaeology, Burma: co-author and general editor of the Nomination Dossier to the World Heritage Organisation on The Three Ancient Pyu Cities as Sites of Outstanding Universal Value.
- 2012-3, Consultant to UNESCO Regional Office, Bangkok, for the same project.
- 2012-, Advisory Editor, JourÍnal of National Maritime Research, China Maritime Museum.
- 2005-, UK representative on the International Expert Group for Remote Sensing Archaeology, under the auspices of UNESCO and the Chinese Academy of Science.
- 2000-8, Member of the International Policy Panel, Tropical Rainforest Forum of the UK.
- 1999-, Member of the Royal Society's Rainforest Research Programme.
- 1989-, Series Editor, South East Asia, PACSEA, Cambridge.
- 1983-, Member Management Committee, Asian Studies Centre, St Antony's College, University of Oxford.
- 1981-, Consultant to UNESCO, UNDP, 1981 Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka, Angkor 1999, Yangon 2013; Specialist Lecturer for the British Council in Asia 1979, 1984 1991; Visiting Professor at the University of Oxford, numerous; the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Religieuses [Buddhism] on numerous occasions 1977-98, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales 1985; University of Heidelberg (South Asian Institute) 1985, University of Munich 1995, Silapakorn University Bangkok 1984 and 1987; Chinese University of Hong Kong 1999 and 2007.
- 1973-1998, Visiting Professor, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai Campus, Thailand.
- 1976-, Foreign Professor for Life [Directeur d'Etudes], Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes IV [national research institute of history and philology], Sorbonne, Paris by Decree of the President of France.
- 1974-, research collaboration with Prince of Songkla University, Thailand on modern and ancient environmental studies, with the University of Andhra at Vishakapatnam, India, on early Buddhist archaeology, with the University of Pondichery, Tamil Nadu on the late Iron Age of South India, with the Chinese University of Hong Kong on GIS and Remote Sensing, the history of maritime trade and on ancient ceramics, with Xiamen University, China on Southeast Asian historical geography and with the Institute of Remote Sensing, Beijing on the application of remote sensing to archaeology.