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Clive Oppenheimer BA PhD

Clive Oppenheimer BA PhD

Professor of Volcanology

Volcanology, environmental sensing & atmospheric chemistry.



  • 1987: Research Assistant in Seismology, Geophysics Division, DSIR, Wellington, NZ.
  • 1991-3: NERC PDRA and visiting research fellow, Open University, and NASA JPL.
  • 1993-4: University of Cambridge; SERC/NERC Earth Observation Fellowship.
  • 1994-present: University Assistant Lecturer / Lecturer / Reader, Department of Geography, University of Cambridge.
  • 2007-8: Leverhulme Trust Study Abroad Fellowship (New Mexico Tech.)
  • 2010-11: "Le Studium" Research Associate, Institut des Sciences de la Terre d'Orléans


  • BA (Cantab) Natural Sciences
  • PhD (Open University) Volcanology


Clive Oppenheimer's main research interests are the controls of volcanic degassing on differentiation and redox state of magmas, and on eruptive processes; the atmospheric chemistry of volcanic plumes; the environmental, climatic and human impacts of volcanism in antiquity; and development of environmental sensing techniques and applications. His main research focus has become Erebus volcano in Antarctica where he has worked with the US Antarctic Program since 2003. He works closely with colleagues at the Institut des Sciences de la Terre d'Orléans and New Mexico Tech.

Clive coordinates the Cambridge Volcanology Group with Marie Edmonds.

Current grants

  • Richard Lounsbery Foundation, Volcanological and Geophysical Research of Mt Paektu, DPRK, with James Hammond (Imperial College)
  • NSF, Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory Operations, Science and Outreach, with Phil Kyle (NM Tech)


Books and special issues (authored or edited)

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  • Oppenheimer, C., 2011, Eruptions that shook the world, Cambridge University Press, 408 pp.
  • Francis, P., and Oppenheimer, C., 2004, Volcanoes, Oxford University Press, 521pp.
  • Oppenheimer, C. & Kyle, P. (editors), 2008, Volcanology of Erebus volcano, Antarctica, Special Issue of Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 177, vii+pp.531–754.
  • Oppenheimer, C., Pyle, D.M., and Barclay, J. (editors), 2003, Volcanic Degassing, Geological Society, London, Special Publication, 213, 420pp.
  • Robock, A., and Oppenheimer, C. (editors), 2003, Volcanism and the Earth's atmosphere, American Geophysical Union, Geophysical Monograph, 139, 360pp.

Published course guides

  • Oppenheimer, C. and Wooster, M.J., 2003, Remote sensing for natural hazards, University of London Press, 82pp.

Articles in international peer-reviewed journals and monographs


  • Samarasundera, E., Hansell, H., Anand, S., Leibovici, D., Oppenheimer, C., and Horwell, C., 2014, Geological hazards: from early warning systems to public health toolkits, Health and Place, in press
  • Peters, N., A. Hoffmann, T. Barnie, M. Herzog, C. Oppenheimer, Use of motion estimation algorithms for improved SO2 measurements using UV cameras, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, in press
  • Hamlyn, J.E., Keir, D., Wright, T.J., Neuberg, J.W. Goitom, B., Hammond, J.O.S., Pagli, C., Oppenheimer, C., Kendall, J.-M., 2014, Seismicity and subsidence following the 2011 Nabro eruption, Eritrea: Insights into the plumbing system of an off-rift volcano, Journal of Geophysical Research, in press.
  • Donovan, A.R., Oppenheimer, C., 2014, At the mercy of the mountain? Field stations and the culture of volcanology, Environment and Planning A, in press
  • Oppenheimer, C., and Donovan, A.R., 2014, On the nature and consequences of super-eruptions, in Volcanism and Global Environmental Change, Cambridge University Press, in press.
  • Donovan, A., V. Tsanev, C. Oppenheimer, and M. Edmonds (2014), Reactive halogens (BrO and OClO) detected in the plume of Soufrière Hills Volcano during an eruption hiatus, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 15, doi:10.1002/2014GC005419.
  • Peters, N., C. Oppenheimer, D. R. Killingsworth, J. Frechette, and P. Kyle (2014), Correlation of cycles in Lava Lake motion and degassing at Erebus Volcano, Antarctica, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 15, doi:10.1002/2014GC005399.
  • Gatti, E., Villa, I.M., Achyuthan, H., Gibbard, P.L., Oppenheimer, C, 2014, Geochemical variability in distal and proximal glass from the Youngest Toba Tuff eruption, Bulletin of Volcanology, doi:10.1007/s00445-014-0859-x
  • Donovan, A.R., Oppenheimer, C., Bravo, M., 2014, Reflexive volcanology: Fifteen years of communicating risk and uncertainty in scientific advice on Montserrat, in G. Wadge, R. Robertson, and B. Voight, editors, The Eruption of Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat from 2000 to 2010. Geological Society, London, Memoirs, 39; 457–470, doi:10.1144/M39.25.
  • Donovan, A. & Oppenheimer, C., 2014, Science, policy and place in volcanic disasters: Insights from Montserrat, Environmental Science and Policy, doi:10.1016/j.envsci.2013.08.009
  • Rampey, M.L., Oppenheimer, C., Pyle, D.M., Yirgu, G., 2014, Physical volcanology of the Gubisa formation, Kone Volcanic Complex, Ethiopia, Journal of African Earth Sciences, 96, 212-219, 10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2014.04.009.
  • Roberts, T.J., Saffell, J.R., Oppenheimer, C. & Lurton, T., 2014, Electrochemical sensors applied to pollution monitoring: Measurement error and gas ratio bias - a volcano plume case study, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2014.02.023
  • Moussallam, Y., Oppenheimer, C., Scaillet, B., Gaillard, F., Kyle, P., Peters, N., Hartley, M., Berlo, K. & Donovan, A., 2014, Tracking the changing oxidation state of Erebus magmas, from mantle to surface, driven by magma ascent and degassing, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 393, 200–209, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2014.02.055.
  • Donovan, A.R., and Oppenheimer, C., 2014, Extreme volcanism: disaster risks and societal implications, In Extreme Natural Hazards, Disaster risks and Societal Implications, IUGG Special Publication Series, Cambridge University Press, 29–46.
  • Lenhardt, N. and Oppenheimer, C. (2014) Volcanism in Africa: Geological perspectives, hazard assessment and societal implications, In Extreme Natural Hazards, Disaster risks and Societal Implications, IUGG Special Publication Series, Cambridge University Press, 169–199.
  • Yirgu, G., Ferguson, D., Barnie, T. and Oppenheimer, C., (2014) Recent volcanic eruptions in the Afar rift, north-east Africa: hazards in the making, In Extreme Natural Hazards, Disaster risks and Societal Implications, IUGG Special Publication Series, Cambridge University Press, 200–213.
  • Peters, N., Oppenheimer, C., Kyle, P. & Kingsbury, N., 2014, Decadal persistence of cycles in lava lake motion at Erebus volcano, Antarctica, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 395, 1–12, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2014.03.032
  • Donovan, A., & Oppenheimer, C. (2014). Managing the uncertain earth: geophysical hazards in the risk society. The Geographical Journal, 180, 89-95.
  • Peters, N., Oppenheimer, C., and Kyle, P., 2014, Autonomous thermal camera system for monitoring the active lava lake at Erebus volcano, Antarctica, Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 3, 13-20, doi:10.5194/gi-3-13-2014
  • Oppenheimer, C. Fischer, T., Scaillet, B., 2014, Volcanic Degassing: Process and Impact, In Treatise on Geochemistry (Second Edition), edited by H. D. Holland and K. K. Turekian, Elsevier, Oxford, pp. 111-179, doi:10.1016/B978-0-08-095975-7.00304-1
  • Murphy, S.W., Oppenheimer, C., de Souza Filho, C.R., 2014, Calculating radiant flux from thermally mixed pixels using a spectral library, Remote Sensing of the Environment, 142, 83–94.
  • Le Blond, J. S., Tomatis, M., Horwell, C. J., Dunster, C., Murphy, F., Corazzari, II., Grendene, F., Turci, F., Gazzano, E., Ghigo, D., Williamson, B.J., Oppenheimer, C., Fubini, B., 2014, The surface reactivity and implied toxicity of ash produced from sugarcane burning. Environmental Toxicology, 29, 503-516, doi:10.1002/tox.21776.


  • Lavigne, F., Degeai, J.-P., Komorowski, J.-C., Guillet, S., Robert, V., Lahitte, P., Oppenheimer, C., Stoffel, Vidal, C.M., Surono, Pratomo, I., Wassner, P., Hajdas, I., Sri Hadmoko, D., De Belizal, E., 2013, Source of the great A.D. 1257 mystery eruption unveiled, Samalas Volcano, Rinjani Volcanic Complex, Indonesia, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 110 (42) 16742-16747, doi:10.1073/pnas.1307520110.
  • Oppenheimer, C., 2013, Nature and impacts of the Minoan eruption of Santorini, In: Meller, H., Bertemes, F., Bork, H.R. (eds.): 1600 – cultural change in the shadow of the Thera eruption? pp.49–58.
  • Gatti, E. and Oppenheimer, C. (2013) Utilization of distal tephra records for understanding climatic and environmental consequences of the Youngest Toba Tuff, in Climates, Landscapes, and Civilizations (eds L. Giosan, D. Q. Fuller, K. Nicoll, R. K. Flad and P. D. Clift), American Geophysical Union Monograph 198, 63–74, doi:10.1029/2012GM001216.
  • Iacovino, K., Moore, G., Roggensack, K., Oppenheimer, C., Kyle, P., 2013, H2O-CO2 solubility in mafic alkalic magmas: Applications to volatile sources and degassing behavior at Erebus volcano, Antarctica, Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 166, 845-860, doi:10.1007/s00410-013-0877-2.
  • Moussallam, Y, Oppenheimer, C., Scaillet, B., Kyle, P., 2013, Experimental phase equilibrium constraints on the phonolite magmatic system of Erebus volcano, Antarctica, Journal of Petrology, 54, 1285–1307, doi:10.1093/petrology/egt012
  • Donovan, A.R., Bravo, M., Oppenheimer, C., 2013, Co-production of an institution: Montserrat Volcano Observatory and the social dependence on science, Science and Public Policy, 40, 171-186. doi:10.1093/scipol/scs078
  • Murphy, S., Wright, R., Oppenheimer, C., de Souza Filho, C. R., 2013, MODIS and ASTER synergy for characterizing thermal volcanic activity, Remote Sensing of the Environment, 131, 195–205, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2012.12.005
  • Gatti, E., Saidin, M., Talib, K., Rashidi, N., Gibbard, P. and Oppenheimer, C., 2013, Depositional processes of reworked tephra from the Late Pleistocene Youngest Toba Tuff deposits in the Lenggong Valley, Quaternary Research, 79, 228–241 doi:10.1016/j.yqres.2012.11.006.


  • Donovan, A.R., Oppenheimer, C., Bravo, M., 2012, Contested boundaries: Delineating the "safe zone" on Montserrat, Applied Geography, 35, 508–514.
  • Burgisser, A., C. Oppenheimer, M. Alletti, P. R. Kyle, B. Scaillet, and M. R. Carroll (2012), Backward tracking of gas chemistry measurements at Erebus volcano, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 13, Q11010, doi:10.1029/2012GC004243.
  • Roberts, T.J., Braban, C.F., Oppenheimer, C., Freshwater, R., Martin, R.S., Dawson, D.H., Griffiths, P.T., Cox, R.A., Safell, J. & Jones, R.L., 2012, Electrochemical sensing of volcanic gases, Chemical Geology, 332–333, 74–91.
  • Mitchell, N.C., Stretch, R, Oppenheimer C., Kay, D., Beier, C., 2012, Cone morphologies associated with shallow marine eruptions: east Pico Island, Azores, Bulletin of Volcanology, 74, 2289–2301, doi:10.1007/s00445-012-0662-5.
  • Donovan, A.R., Oppenheimer, C., Bravo, M., 2012, The use of belief-based probabilistic methods in volcanology: scientists' views and implications for risk assessments, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 247–248, 168–180.
  • Moussallam, Y., Oppenheimer, C., Aiuppa, A., Guidice, G., Moussallam, M. and Kyle, P., 2012, Hydrogen emission from Erebus volcano, Antarctica, Bulletin of Volcanology, 74, 2109–2120, doi:10.1007/s00445-012-0649-2.
  • Ilyinskaya, E., Martin, R.S., Oppenheimer, C., 2012, Aerosol formation associated in basaltic lava fountaining: Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland, Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 117, D00U27, doi:10.1029/2011JD016811
  • Donovan, A., Oppenheimer, C. & Bravo, M., 2012, Reply to comment from W.P. Aspinall on "Social studies of volcanology: knowledge generation and expert advice on active volcanoes" by Amy Donovan, Clive Oppenheimer and Michael Bravo [Bull Volcanol (2012) 74:677-689], Bulletin of Volcanology, 74, 1571–1574, doi:10.1007/s00445-012-0626-9
  • Molina, I., Burgisser, A., Oppenheimer, C., 2012, Origin of steady convection in Erebus lava lake, Antarctica: The effects of crystals in open- and closed-systems, Journal of Geophysical Research, 117, B07209, doi:10.1029/2011JB008760.
  • Martin, R.S., Ilyinskaya, E., Oppenheimer, C., 2012, The enigma of reactive nitrogen in volcanic emissions, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 96, 93–106. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2012.07.027
  • Martin, R.S., GM Sawyer, JA Day, JS LeBlond, E Ilyinskaya and Oppenheimer, C., 2012, High-resolution size distributions and emission fluxes of trace elements from Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, Journal of Geophysical Research, 117, B08206, doi:10.1029/2012JB009487.
  • Donovan, A., & Oppenheimer, C., 2012, Governing the lithosphere: Insights from Eyjafjallajökull concerning the role of scientists in supporting decision-making on active volcanoes, J. Geophys. Res., 117, B03214, doi:10.1029/2011JB009080.
  • Surono, Jousset, P., Pallister, J., Boichu, M., Buongiorno, M.F., Budisantoso, A., Costa, F., Andreastuti, S., Prata, F., Schneider, D., Clarisse, L., Humaida, H., Sumarti, S., Bignami, C., Griswold, J., Carn, S., Oppenheimer, C., Lavigne, F., 2012, The 2010 explosive eruption of Java's Merapi volcano – a '100-year' event, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 241–242, 121–135, doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2012.06.018.
  • Spampinato, L., Oppenheimer, C., Cannata, A., Montalto, P., Salerno, G. G., & Calvari, S., 2012, On the time-scale of thermal cycles associated with open-vent degassing. Bulletin of Volcanology, 74, 1281–1292, doi:10.1007/s00445-012-0592-2.
  • Donovan, A., Oppenheimer, C., & Bravo, M., 2012, Social studies of volcanology: Knowledge generation and expert advice on active volcanoes. Bulletin of Volcanology, 74(3), 677-689.
  • Allibone, R., Cronin, S. J., Charley, D. T., Neall, V. E., Stewart, R. B., & Oppenheimer, C. (2012). Dental fluorosis linked to degassing of Ambrym volcano, Vanuatu: A novel exposure pathway. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 34(2), 155-170. doi:10.1007/s10653-010-9338-2
  • Donovan, A., Oppenheimer, C., & Bravo, M. (2012). Science at the policy interface: volcano-monitoring technologies and volcanic hazard management. Bulletin of Volcanology, 74, 1005–1022. doi:10.1007/s00445-012-0581-5.
  • Martin, R. S., Wheeler, J. C., Ilyinskaya, E., Braban, C. F., & Oppenheimer, C. (2012). The uptake of halogen (HF, HCl, HBr and HI) and nitric (HNO3) acids into acidic sulphate particles in quiescent volcanic plumes. Chemical Geology, 296-297, 19-25. doi:0.1016/j.chemgeo.2011.12.013
  • Bani, P., Oppenheimer, C., Allard, P., Shinohara, H., Tsanev, V., Carn, S., Lardy, M., Garaebiti, E., (2012). First estimate of volcanic SO2 budget for Vanuatu island arc, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 211-212, 36-46. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2011.10.005
  • Donovan, A. R., & Oppenheimer, C. (2012). The aviation sagas: geographies of volcanic risk. Geographical Journal, 178. 98–103. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4959.2011.00458.x
  • Donovan, A., & Oppenheimer, C. (2012). Governing the lithosphere: Insights from Eyjafjallajkull concerning the role of scientists in supporting decision-making on active volcanoes. Journal of Geophysical Research B: Solid Earth, 117(3). doi:10.1029/2011JB009080


  • Gatti, E., Durant, A. J., Gibbard, P. L., & Oppenheimer, C. (2011). Youngest Toba Tuff in the Son Valley, India: A weak and discontinuous stratigraphic marker. Quaternary Science Reviews, 30, 3925-3934. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2011.10.008
  • Wooster, M. J., Freeborn, P. H., Archibald, S., Oppenheimer, C., Roberts, G. J., Smith, T. E. L., Govender, N., Burton, M., Palumbo, I. (2011). Field determination of biomass burning emission ratios and factors via open-path FTIR spectroscopy and fire radiative power assessment: Headfire, backfire and residual smouldering combustion in African savannahs. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11(22), 11591-11615. doi:10.5194/acp-11-11591-2011
  • Oppenheimer, C., Scaillet, B & Martin, R.S., 2011, Sulfur degassing from volcanoes: source conditions, surveillance, plume chemistry and impacts, Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 73, 363 - 421. doi:10.2138/rmg.2011.73.13
  • Donovan, A., Oppenheimer, C., Bravo, M., 2011, Rationalising a volcanic crisis through literature: Montserratian verse and the descriptive reconstruction of an island, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 203, 87–101. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2011.03.010
  • Ilyinskaya, E., Tsanev, V.I., Martin, R.S., Oppenheimer, C., Le Blond, J., Sawyer, G.M. & Gudmundsson, M.T., 2011, Near-source observations of aerosol size distributions in the eruptive plumes from Eyjafjallajökull volcano, March–April 2010, Atmospheric Environment, 45, 3210–3216.
  • Sawyer, G.M., Salerno, G.G., Le Blond, J., Martin, R.S., Spampinato, L., Roberts, T., Mather, T.A., Witt, M., Tsanev, V.I. & Oppenheimer, C. 2011, Gas and aerosol emissions from Villarrica volcano, Chile. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 203, 62–75.
  • Boichu, M., Oppenheimer, C., Roberts, T.J., Tsanev, V. & Kyle, P.R., 2011, On bromine, nitrogen oxides and ozone depletion in the tropospheric plume of Erebus volcano (Antarctica), Atmospheric Environment, 45, 3856–3866.
  • Murphy, S., de Souza Filho, C.R. & Oppenheimer, C., 2011, Monitoring volcanic thermal anomalies from space: size matters, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 203, 48–61,
  • Oppenheimer, C., Moretti, R., Kyle, P., Eschenbacher, A., Lowenstern, J., Hervig, R. & Dunbar, N.W., 2011, Mantle to surface degassing of alkalic magmas at Erebus volcano, Antarctica, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 306, 261–271, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2011.04.005.
  • Spampinato, L., Calvari, S., Oppenheimer, C., & Boschi, E., 2011, Volcano surveillance using infrared cameras, Earth Science Reviews, 106, 63–91. doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2011.01.003
  • Martin, R.S., Ilyinskaya, E., Sawyer, G.M., Tsanev, V.I. & Oppenheimer, C., 2011, A re-assessment of aerosol size distributions from Masaya volcano (Nicaragua), Atmospheric Environment, 45, 547–560. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.10.049
  • Calvari, S., Spampinato, L., Bonaccorso, A., Oppenheimer, C., Rivalta, E. & Boschi, E., 2011, Lava effusion – a slow fuse for paroxysms at Stromboli volcano? Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 301, 317–323. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2010.11.015
  • Donovan, A. & Oppenheimer, C., 2011, Eyjafjallajökull and the reconstruction of geography, The Geographical Journal, 177, 4–11. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4959.2010.00379.x


  • Spampinato, L., Salerno, G.G., Martin, R.S., Sawyer, G.M., Oppenheimer, C., Ilyinskaya, E., Ramírez, C., 2010, Thermal and geochemical signal of Poás volcano, Costa Rica (March 2009), Revista Geológica de América Central, 2230–2310.
  • Martin, R.S., Sawyer, G.M., Spampinato, L., Salerno, G.G., Ramirez, C., Ilyinskaya, E., Witt, M.L.L., Mather, T.A., Allen, A.G., Watson, I.M., Phillips, J.C & Oppenheimer, C., 2010, A total volatile inventory for Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, Journal of Geophysical Research, 115, B09215, doi:10.1029/2010JB007480.
  • Le Blond, J.S., Horwell, C.J., Williamson, B.J. and Oppenheimer, C., 2010, Generation of crystalline silica from sugarcane burning, Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 12, 1459–1470.
  • Rampey, M.L., Oppenheimer, C., Pyle. D.M. & Yirgu, G., 2010, Caldera-forming eruptions of the Quaternary Kone Volcanic Complex, Ethiopia, Journal of African Earth Sciences,, 52–66.
  • Khalidi, L., Oppenheimer, C., Gratuze, B., Boucetta, S., Sanabani, A., Al-Mosabi, A. 2010, Obsidian sources in highland Yemen and their relevance to archaeological research in the Red Sea region, Journal of Archaeological Science 37, 2332–2345.
  • Graf, H.-F., Shirsat, S.V., Oppenheimer, C., Jarvis, M.J., Podzun, R., & Jacob, D., 2010, Continental scale Antarctic deposition of sulphur and black carbon from anthropogenic and volcanic sources, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 10, 2457-2465.
  • Ilyinskaya, E., Oppenheimer, C., Mather, T.A., Martin, R.S., & Kyle, P., 2010, Size-resolved chemical composition of aerosol emitted by Erebus volcano, Antarctica, Geochemistry, Geophysics and Geosystems, 11, Q03017, doi:10.1029/2009GC002855.
  • Ferguson, D.J., Barnie, T.D., Pyle, D.M., Oppenheimer, C., Yirgu, G., Lewi, E., Kidane, T., Carn, S., & Hamling, I., 2010, Recent rift-related volcanism in Afar, Ethiopia, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 292, 409–418.
  • Boichu, M., Oppenheimer, C., Tsanev, V.I. & Kyle, P.R., 2010, High temporal resolution SO2 flux measurements at Erebus volcano, Antarctica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 190, 325–336.
  • Oppenheimer, C., 2010, Ultraviolet sensing of volcanic sulfur emissions, Elements, 6, 87–92.

Article cover

  • Oppenheimer, C., P. Kyle, F. Eisele, J. Crawford, G. Huey, D. Tanner, S. Kim, L. Mauldin, D. Blake, A. Beyersdorf, M. Buhr, & D. Davis (2010), Atmospheric chemistry of an Antarctic volcanic plume, Journal of Geophysical Research, 115, D04303, doi:10.1029/2009JD011910.


  • Petraglia, M.D., Korisettar, R., Bai, M.K., Boivin, N., Janardhana, B., Clarkson, C., Cunningham, K., Ditchfield, P., Fuller, D., Hampson, J., Haslam, M., Jones, S., Koshy, J., Miracle, P., Oppenheimer, C., Roberts, R. & White, K., 2009, Pleistocene and Holocene occupations of the Kurnool District India: Cave and rockshelter records, the Toba super-eruption and forager-farmer interactions, Journal of Eurasian Prehistory, 6(1-2),119–166.
  • Bani, P., Oppenheimer, C., Varekamp, J.C., Quinou, T., Lardy, M., and Carn, S., 2009, Remarkable geochemical changes and degassing at Voui crater lake, Ambae volcano, Vanuatu, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 188, 347-357. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2009.09.018
  • Bani, P., Oppenheimer, C., Tsanev, V.I., Carn, S.A., Cronin, S.J., Crimp, R., Calkins, J.A., Charley, D., Lardy. M. & Roberts, T.R., 2009, Surge in sulphur and bromine degassing from Ambrym volcano, Vanuatu, Bulletin of Volcanology, 71, 1159–1168.
  • Oppenheimer, C., Lomakina, A., Kyle, P.R., Kingsbury, N.G., & Boichu, M., 2009, Pulsatory magma supply to a phonolite lava lake, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 284, 392–398. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2009.04.043.
  • Salerno, G.G., M. Burton, C. Oppenheimer, T. Caltabiano, D. Randazzo, N. Bruno, & V. Longo., 2009, Three-years of SO2 flux measurements of Mt. Etna using an automated UV scanner array: comparison with conventional traverses and uncertainties in flux retrieval, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 183, 76–83.
  • Salerno, G.G., Burton, M.R., Oppenheimer, C., Caltabiano, T., Tsanev, V.I., Bruno, N. & Randazzo., D., 2009, Novel retrieval of volcanic SO2 abundance from ultraviolet spectra, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 181, 141–153.
  • Martin, R., Mather, T., Pyle, D., Power, M., Tsanev, V., Oppenheimer, C., Allen, A., Horwell, C. & Ward, E., 2009, Size distributions of fine silicate and other particles in Masaya's volcanic plume, Journal of Geophysical Research, 114, D09217, doi:10.1029/2008JD011211.
  • Roberts, T.J., Braban, C.F., Martin, R.S., Oppenheimer, C., Adams, J.W., Cox, R.A., Jones, R.L. & Griffiths, P.T., 2009, Formation of BrO and ClOx in volcanic plumes and chemical impacts on O3, Chemical Geology, 263, 131–142.
  • Oppenheimer, C. & Pyle, D. M., 2009, Volcanoes, in J. C. Woodward (ed.), The Physical Geography of the Mediterranean. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 435–468.


  • Spampinato, L., Oppenheimer, C., Calvari, S., Cannata, A. & Montalto, P., 2008, Lava lake surface characterization by thermal imaging: Erta 'Ale volcano (Ethiopia), Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 9, Q12008, doi:10.1029/2008GC002164.
  • Sawyer, G.M., Oppenheimer, C., Tsanev, V.I. & Yirgu, G., 2008, Magmatic degassing at Erta 'Ale volcano, Ethiopia, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, clear178, 837–846, doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.09.017
  • Le Blond, J.S., Williamson, B.J., Horwell, C.J., Monro, A.K., Kirk, C.A. & Oppenheimer, C., 2008, Production of potentially hazardous respirable silica airborne particulate from the burning of sugarcane, Atmospheric Environment 42, 5558–5568, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.03.018.
  • Toyos, G., Gunasekera, R., Zanchetta, R., Oppenheimer, C., Sulpizio, R., Favalli, M. & Pareschi, M. T., 2008, GIS-assisted modelling for debris flow hazard assessment based on the events of May 1998 in the area of Sarno, Southern Italy: II. Velocity and dynamic pressure, Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 33, 1693–1708, doi:10.1002/esp.1640.
  • Calkins, J., Oppenheimer, C., Kyle, P.R., 2008, Ground-based thermal imaging of lava lakes at Erebus volcano, Antarctica, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 177, 695–704, doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.02.002
  • Sweeney, D., Kyle, P. R., Oppenheimer, C., 2008, Sulfur dioxide emissions and degassing behavior of Erebus volcano, Antarctica, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 177, 725–733, doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.01.024
  • Rodríguez, L.A., Watson, I.M., Edmonds, M., Ryan, G., Hards, V., Oppenheimer, C. & Bluth, G.J.S., 2008, SO2 loss rates in the plume emitted by Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 173, 135–147, doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.01.003.
  • Oppenheimer, C. & Kyle, P.R., 2008, Probing the magma plumbing of Erebus volcano, Antarctica, by open-path FTIR spectroscopy of gas emissions, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 177, 743–754, doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.01.003.
  • Sawyer, G.M, Carn, S.A., Tsanev, V.I., Oppenheimer, C. & Burton, M., 2008, Investigation into magma degassing at Nyiragongo volcano, Democratic Republic of Congo, Geochemistry, Geophysics and Geosystems, 9, Q02017, doi:10.1029/2007GC001829.
  • Spampinato, L., Calvari, S., Oppenheimer, C. & Lodato, L., 2008, Shallow magma transport for the 2002–3 Mt. Etna eruption inferred from thermal infrared surveys, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 177, 301–312. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.05.013


  • Petraglia, M.P., Korisettar, R., Boivin, N., Clarkson, C., Ditchfield, P., Jones, S., Koshy, J., Lahr, M., Oppenheimer, C., Pyle, D., Roberts, R., Schwenninger, J.L., Arnold, L., and White, K., 2007, Middle paleolithic assemblages from the Indian subcontinent before and after the Toba super-eruption, Science, 317, 114-116.
  • Toyos, G., Dorta, D.O., Oppenheimer, C., Pareschi, M.T., Sulpizio, R., and Zanchetta, G., 2007, GIS-assisted modelling for debris flow hazard assessment based on the events of May 1998 in the area of Sarno, Southern Italy: Part I. Maximum run-out, Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 32, 1491-1502.
  • Permenter, J.L. and Oppenheimer, C., 2007, Volcanoes of the Tibesti massif (Chad, northern Africa), Bulletin of Volcanology, 69, 609-626.
  • Oramas-Dorta, D., Toyos, G., Oppenheimer, C., Pareschi, M. T., Sulpizio, R., Zanchetta, G., 2007, Empirical hazard mapping of small debris flows in Sarno (Italy) using LAHARZ, Natural Hazards, 40, 381-396.


  • Rose, W. I., Millard, G.A., Mather, T.A., Hunton, D.E., Anderson, B., Oppenheimer, C., Thornton, B.F., Gerlach, T.M., Viggiano, A.A., Kondo. Y., Miller, T.M., Ballenthin, J.O., 2006, Atmospheric chemistry of a 33–34 hour old volcanic cloud from Hekla Volcano (Iceland): Insights from direct sampling and the application of chemical box modeling, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D20206, doi:10.1029/2005JD006872.
  • Oppenheimer, C., Bani, P., Calkins, J., Burton, M.R. & Sawyer, G.M., 2006, Rapid FTIR sensing of volcanic gases released by strombolian explosions at Yasur volcano, Vanuatu, Applied Physics B, 85, 453–460.
  • Mori, T., Kazahaya, K., Oppenheimer, C., McGonigle, A.J.S., Tsanev, V., Olmos, R., Ohwada, M., and Shuto, T., 2006, Sulfur dioxide fluxes from the volcanoes of Hokkaido, Japan, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 158, 235-243.
  • Sawyer, G.M. and Oppenheimer, C., 2006, Volcanic fluorine emissions: observations by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, in Fluorine and the Environment: atmospheric chemistry, emissions, and lithosphere (ed: Tressaud, A.), Advances in Fluorine Science, 1, 165-185.
  • Oppenheimer, C., Tsanev, V.I., Braban, C.F., Cox, R.A., Adams, J.W., Aiuppa, A., Bobrowski, N., Delmelle, P., Barclay, J., and McGonigle, A.J.S., 2006, BrO formation in volcanic plumes, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 70, 2935-2941.
  • Allen, A.G., Mather, T.A., McGonigle, A.J.S., Aiuppa, A., Delmelle, P., Davison, B., Bobrowski, N., Oppenheimer, C., Pyle, D.M., and Inguaggiato, S., 2006, Sources, size distribution, and downwind grounding of aerosols from Mount Etna, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D10302, doi:10.1029/2005JD006015.
  • Elias, T., A. J. Sutton, C. Oppenheimer, K. A. Horton, H. Garbeil, V. Tsanev, A.J.S. McGonigle, and G. Williams-Jones, 2006, Intercomparison of COSPEC and two miniature ultraviolet spectrometer systems for SO2 measurements using scattered sunlight, Bulletin of Volcanology, 68, 313 - 322.
  • Hansell, A.L., Horwell, C.J., and Oppenheimer, C., 2006, Health risks from volcanoes, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 63,149-156; doi:10.1136/oem.2005.022459
  • Mather, T.A., Pyle, D.M., Tsanev, V.I., McGonigle, A.J.S., Oppenheimer, C. and Allen, A.G., 2006, A reassessment of current volcanic emissions from the Central American arc with specific examples from Nicaragua, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 149, 297-311.


  • Weidmann, D., Roller, C.B., Oppenheimer, C., Fried, A., and Tittel, F.K., 2005, Carbon isotopomers measurement using mid-IR tunable laser sources, Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies, 41, 293–302.
  • Aiuppa, A., Inguaggiato, S., McGonigle, A.J.S., O'Dwyer, M., Oppenheimer, C., Padgett, M.J., Rouwet, D., and Valenza, M., 2005, H2S fluxes from Mt. Etna, Stromboli and Vulcano (Italy) and implications for the global volcanic sulfur budget, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 69, 1861-1871.
  • McGonigle, A.J.S., Hilton, D.R., Fischer, T.P., and Oppenheimer, C., 2005, Plume velocity determination for volcanic SO2 flux measurements, Geophysical Research Letters, 32, L11302, doi:10.1029/2005GL022470.
  • McGonigle, A.J.S., Inguaggiato, S., Aiuppa, A., Hayes, A.R., and Oppenheimer, C., 2005, Accurate measurement of volcanic SO2 flux: Determination of plume transport speed and integrated SO2 concentration with a single device, Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 6, Q02003, doi:10.1029/2004GC000845.
  • Oppenheimer, C., Kyle, P.R., Tsanev, V.I., McGonigle, A.J.S., Mather, T.A., and Sweeney, D., 2005, Mt. Erebus, the largest point source of NO2 in Antarctica, Atmospheric Environment, 39, 6000-6006.
  • Weidmann, D., Wysocki, G., Oppenheimer, C., and Tittel, F.K., 2005, Development of a compact quantum cascade laser spectrometer for field measurement of CO2 isotopes, Applied Physics B., 80, 255-260.
  • Wiart, P. and Oppenheimer, C., 2005, Large magnitude silicic volcanism in north Afar: The Nabro Volcanic Range and Ma'alalta volcano, Bulletin of Volcanology, 67, 99-115.
  • Witham, C.S. and Oppenheimer, C., 2005, Mortality in England during the 1783-4 Laki Craters eruption, Bulletin of Volcanology, 67, 15-26.
  • Witham, C.S., Oppenheimer, C., and Horwell, C.J., 2005, Volcanic ash-leachates: a review and recommendations for sampling methods, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 141, 299-326.


  • Hansell, A.L., and Oppenheimer, C., 2004, Health hazards from volcanic gases – a systematic literature review, Archives of Environmental Health, 59, 628-639.
  • Mason, B.G., Pyle, D.M. and Oppenheimer, C., 2004, The size and frequency of the largest explosive eruptions on Earth, Bulletin of Volcanology, 66, 735-748.
  • Mather T.A., Tsanev, V.I., Pyle, D.M., McGonigle, A.J.S., Oppenheimer, C., Allen, A.G., 2004, Characterization and evolution of tropospheric plumes from Lascar and Villarrica volcanoes, Chile, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D21303, doi:10.1029/2004JD004934.
  • Mather, T.A., Oppenheimer, C., Allen, A.G. and McGonigle, A.J.S., 2004, Aerosol chemistry of emissions from three contrasting volcanoes in Italy, Atmospheric Environment, 38, 5637-5649.
  • Mather, T.A., Allen, A.G., Pyle, D.M., Davison, B.M., Oppenheimer, C. and McGonigle, A.J.S., 2004, Nitric acid from volcanoes, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 218, 17-30.
  • McGonigle, A.J.S., Delmelle, P., Oppenheimer, C., Tsanev, V.I., Delfosse, T., Horton, H. and Williams-Jones, G., 2004, SO2 depletion in tropospheric volcanic plumes, Geophysical Research Letters, 31, L13201, doi:10.1029/2004GL019990.
  • McGonigle, A.J.S., Oppenheimer, C., Tsanev, V.I., Saunders, S., Mulina, K., Tohui, S., Bosco, J., Nahou, J., Kuduon, J. and Taranu, F., 2004, sulphur dioxide fluxes from Papua New Guinea's volcanoes, Geophysical Research Letters, 31, L08606, doi:10.1029/2004GL019568.
  • McGonigle, A.J.S., Thomson, C.L., Tsanev, V.I. and Oppenheimer, C., 2004, A simple technique for measuring power station SO2 and NO2 emissions, Atmospheric Environment, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2003.09.048.
  • Oppenheimer, C. and McGonigle, A.J.S., 2004, Exploiting ground-based optical sensing technologies for volcanic gas surveillance, Annals of Geophysics, 47(4), 1455-1470.
  • Oppenheimer, C., Tsanev, V.I., Allen, A.G., McGonigle, A.J.S., Cardoso, A.A., Wiatr, A., Paterlini, W. and de Mello Dias, C., 2004, NO2 emissions from agricultural burning in São Paulo, Brazil, Environ. Sci. Technol., 38, 4557-4561.
  • Oppenheimer, C., McGonigle, A.J.S., Allard, P., Wooster, M.J. and Tsanev, V.I., 2004, Sulfur, heat and magma budget of Erta 'Ale lava lake, Ethiopia, Geology, 32, 509-512.


  • Burton, M., Allard, P., Murè, F. and Oppenheimer, C., 2003, FTIR remote sensing of fractional magma degassing at Mt. Etna, Sicily, in Volcanic degassing, Geological Society Special Publications, 213, 281-293.
  • Duffell, H.J., Oppenheimer, C., Pyle, D., Galle, B., McGonigle, A.J.S. and Burton, M.R., 2003, Geochemical precursors to a minor explosive eruption at Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 126, 327-339.
  • Edmonds, M., Herd, R.A., Galle, B. and Oppenheimer, C., 2003, Automated, high time-resolution measurements of SO2 flux at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, Bulletin of Volcanology, 65, 578-586.
  • Edmonds, M., Oppenheimer, C., Pyle, D.M. and Herd, R., 2003, Rainwater and ash leachate analysis as a proxy for plume chemistry at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, in Volcanic degassing, Geological Society Special Publications, 213, 203-218.
  • Edmonds, M., Oppenheimer, C., Pyle, D.M., Herd, R.A. and Thompson, G., 2003, SO2 emissions from Soufrière Hills Volcano and their relationship to conduit permeability, hydrothermal interaction and degassing regime, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 124, 23-43.
  • Galle, B., Oppenheimer, C., Geyer, A., McGonigle, A., Edmonds, M. and Horrocks, L.A., 2003, A miniaturised ultraviolet spectrometer for remote sensing of SO2 fluxes: a new tool for volcano surveillance, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 119, 241-254.
  • Horrocks, L., Oppenheimer, C., Burton, M. and Duffell, H., 2003, Compositional variation in tropospheric volcanic gas plumes: evidence from ground-based remote sensing, in Volcanic degassing, Geological Society Special Publications, 213, 349-369.
  • Kerle, N., Froger, J-L., Oppenheimer, C. and van Wyk de Vries, B., 2003, Remote sensing of the 1998 mudflow at Casita volcano, Nicaragua, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 24¸ 4791-4816.
  • Kerle, N., van Wyk de Vries, B. and Oppenheimer, C., 2003, New insight into the factors leading to the 1998 flank collapse and lahar disaster at Casita volcano, Nicaragua. Bulletin of Volcanology, 65, 331-345.
  • Mather, T., Pyle, D.M. and Oppenheimer, C., 2003, Tropospheric volcanic aerosol, in Volcanism and the Earth's Atmosphere (Robock, A. and Oppenheimer, C., eds), American Geophysical Union Monograph 139, 189-212.
  • Mather, T.A., Allen, A.G., Oppenheimer, C., Pyle, D.M. and McGonigle, A.J.S., 2003, Size-resolved particle compositions of the tropospheric plume of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, 46(3), 207-237.
  • McGonigle, A.J.S. and Oppenheimer, C., 2003, Optical sensing of volcanic gas and aerosol emissions, in Volcanic degassing, Geological Society Special Publications, 213, 149-168.
  • McGonigle, A.J.S., Oppenheimer, C., Hayes, A.R., Galle, B., Edmonds, M., Caltabiano, Salerno, G., Burton, M., and Mather, T.A., 2003, Sulphur dioxide fluxes from Mount Etna, Vulcano, and Stromboli measured with an automated scanning ultraviolet spectrometer, Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 108( B9), 2455, doi:10.1029/2002JB002261.
  • O'Dwyer, M., Padgett, M.J., McGonigle, A.J.S., Oppenheimer, C. and Inguaggiato, S., 2003, Real-time measurement of volcanic H2S and SO2 concentrations by UV spectroscopy, Geophsyical Research Letters, 30(12), 1652, doi 10.1029/2003GL017246.
  • Oppenheimer, C., 2003, Volcanic degassing, in: The Crust (ed. R.L. Rudnick) Vol. 3, Treatise on Geochemistry (eds. H.D. Holland and K.K. Turekian), Elsevier-Pergamon, Oxford, 123-166.
  • Oppenheimer, C., 2003, Climatic, environmental and human consequences of the largest known historic eruption: Tambora volcano (Indonesia) 1815, Progress in Physical Geography, 27, 230-259.
  • Oppenheimer, C., 2003, Ice core and palaeoclimatic evidence for the great volcanic eruption of 1257, International Journal of Climatology, 23, 417-426.
  • Toyos, G., Oppenheimer, C., Sulpizio, R., Zanchetta, G., and Zuccaro, G., 2003, Modelling building vulnerability to debris flows in the Sarno area, Southern Italy, in: Rickenmann and Chen (eds) Debris-flow hazards mitigation: mechanics, prediction, and assessment, Millpress, Rotterdam, 1209-1220.


  • Allen, A.G., Oppenheimer, C., Ferm, M., Baxter, P.J., Horrocks, L., Galle, B., McGonigle, A.J.S., and Duffell, H.J., 2002, Primary sulphate aerosol and associated emissions from Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, D.O.I. 10.1029/2002JD002120, 4 December 2002.
  • McGonigle A.J.S., Oppenheimer C., Galle B., Mather T. and Pyle D., 2002, Walking traverse and scanning DOAS measurements of volcanic gas emission rates, Geophysical Research Letters, DOI 10.1029/2002GL015827, 26 October 2002.
  • Oppenheimer, C., and Yirgu, G., 2002, Thermal imaging of an active lava lake: Erta 'Ale volcano, Ethiopia, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 23, 4777-4782.
  • Porter, J.N., Horton, K., Mouginis-Mark, P., Lienert, B., Lau, E., Sutton, A.J., Elias, T., and Oppenheimer, C., 2002, Sun photometer and lidar measurements of the plume from the Hawaii Kilauea volcano Pu'u 'O'o vent: estimates of aerosol flux rates and SO2 lifetime, Geophysical Research Letters, DOI 10.1029/2002GL014744, 23 August 2002.
  • Oppenheimer, C., 2002, Limited global change due to largest known Quaternary eruption, Toba ≈74 kyr BP?, Quaternary Science Reviews, 21, 1593-1609.
  • Kerle, N. and Oppenheimer, C. 2002, Satellite remote sensing as a tool in lahar disaster management, Disasters, 26, 140-160.
  • Richter, D., Erdelyi, M., Curl, R.F., Tittel, F.K., Oppenheimer, C., Duffell, H.J., and Burton, M., 2002, Field measurement of volcanic gases using tunable diode laser based mid-infrared and Fourier transform infrared spectrometers, Optics and Lasers in Engineering, 37, 171-186.
  • Oppenheimer, C., Burton, M.R., Durieux, J., and Pyle, D.M., 2002, Open-path Fourier transform spectroscopy of gas emissions from a carbonatite volcano: Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania, Optics and Lasers in Engineering, 37, 203-214.
  • Oppenheimer, C., Edmonds, M., Francis, P., and Burton, M.R., 2002, Variation in HCl/SO2 gas ratios observed by Fourier transform spectroscopy at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, in Druitt, T.H., and Kokelaar, P. (eds) The eruption of Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, from 1995 to 1999. Geological Society, London, Memoir, 21, 621-639.
  • Edmonds, M., Pyle, D., and Oppenheimer, C., 2002, HCl emissions at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, West Indies, during the second phase of dome-building: November 1999 to October 2000, Bulletin of Volcanology, 64, 21-30.


  • Horrocks, L.A., Oppenheimer, C., Burton, M.R., Duffell, H.R., Davies, N.M., Martin, N.A., and Bell, W., 2001, Open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of SO2: an empirical error budget analysis, with implications for volcano monitoring, Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 106, 27647-27659.
  • Duffell, H., Oppenheimer, C., and Burton, M.R., 2001, Volcanic gas emission rates measured by solar occultation spectroscopy, Geophysical Research Letters, 28, 3131-3134.
  • Watson, I.M., and Oppenheimer, C., 2001, Particle-size distributions of ash-rich volcanic plumes determined by sun photometry, Atmospheric Environment, 35, 3561-3572..
  • Edmonds, M., Pyle, D., and Oppenheimer, C., 2001, A model for degassing at the Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, West Indies, based on geochemical data, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 186, 159-173.
  • Burton, M.R., Oppenheimer, C., Horrocks, L.A., Francis, P.W., 2001, Diurnal changes in volcanic plume chemistry observed by lunar and solar occultation spectroscopy, Geophysical Research Letters, 28, 843-846.


  • Burton, M.R., Oppenheimer, C., Horrocks, L.A., and Francis, P.W., 2000, Remote sensing of CO2 and H2O emission rates from Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, Geology, 28, 915-918.
  • Amelung, F., Oppenheimer, C., Segall, P., and Zebker, H., 2000, Ground deformation near Gada 'Ale volcano, Afar, observed by radar interferometry, Geophysical Research Letters, 27, 3093-3096.
  • Wood, R., and Oppenheimer, C., 2000, Spur and groove morphology from a Late Devonian reef, Sedimentary Geology, 133, 185-193.
  • Francis, P., Horrocks, L., and Oppenheimer, C., 2000, Monitoring gases from andesite volcanoes, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 358, 1567-1584.
  • Watson, I.M., Oppenheimer, C., Voight, B, Francis, P.W., Clarke, A., Stix, J., Miller, A., Pyle, D.M., Burton, M.R., Young, S.R., Norton, G., Loughlin, S., Darroux, B., and MVO Staff, 2000, The relationship between degassing and deformation at Soufriere Hills volcano, Montserrat, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 98, 117-126.
  • Watson, I.M., and Oppenheimer, C., 2000, Particle size distributions of Mt. Etna's aerosol plume constrained by sun-photometry, Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 105, 9823-9830.
  • Carn, S.A., and Oppenheimer, C., 2000, Remote monitoring of Indonesian volcanoes using satellite data from the Internet, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 21, 873-910.
  • Wiart, P.A.M., and Oppenheimer, C., 2000, Largest known historic eruption in Africa: Dubbi volcano, Eritrea, 1861, Geology, 28, 291-294.
  • Wiart P.A.M., Oppenheimer C, and Francis, P., 2000, Eruptive history of Dubbi volcano, northeast Afar (Eritrea), revealed by optical and SAR image interpretation, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 21, 911-936.
  • Flynn, L.P., Harris, A.J.L., Rothery, D.A., and Oppenheimer, C., 2000, High-spatial resolution remote sensing of active volcanic features using Landsat and hyperspectral data, in Remote Sensing of Active Volcanism, (eds. Mouginis-Mark, P.J., Crisp, J.A., and Fink, J.H.), American Geophysical Union Monograph, 116, 161-177.


  • Harris, AJL, Flynn LP, Rothery DA, Oppenheimer C & Sherman SB, 1999, Mass flux measurements at active lava lakes: implications for magma recycling, Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 104, 7117-7136.
  • Horrocks, L., Burton, M., Francis, P., and Oppenheimer, C., 1999, Stable gas plume composition measured by OP-FTIR spectroscopy at Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, 1998-1999, Geophysical Research Letters, 26, 3497-3500.
  • Lagmay, M.A., Pyle, D.M., Dade, B., and Oppenheimer, C., 1999, The control of crater morphology on flow path direction of Soufriere-type pyroclastic flows, Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 104, 7169-7181.
  • Delmelle, P, Baxter, P., Beaulieu, A., Burton, M., Francis, P., Garcia-Alvarez, J., Horrocks, H., Navarro, M., Oppenheimer, C., Rothery, D., Rymer, H., St. Amand, K., Stix, J., Strauch, W., and Williams-Jones, G., 1999, Origin, effects of Masaya volcano's continued unrest probed in Nicaragua, EOS Transactions of American Geophysical Union, 80(48), 575, 579, 581 .


  • Francis P, Burton M, and Oppenheimer C, 1998, Remote measurements of volcanic gas compositions by solar FTIR spectroscopy, Nature 396, 567-570.
  • Oppenheimer C, 1998, Satellite observations of lava lake activity at Nyiragongo volcano, ex-Zaire, during the Rwandan refugee crisis, Disasters, 22, 268-281.
  • Oppenheimer C., 1998, Volcanological applications of meteorological satellites, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 19, 2829-2864.
  • Oppenheimer C, Francis P, Burton M, Maciejewski A, Boardman L, 1998, Remote measurement of volcanic gases by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Applied Physics B, 67, 505-515.
  • Oppenheimer C, Francis P and Watson IM, 1998, Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer (AVNIR) observations of Mount Etna's aerosol plume, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 19, 2823-2828.
  • Oppenheimer C, and Francis P, 1998, Implications of longeval lava lakes for geomorphological and plutonic processes at Erta 'Ale volcano, north Afar, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 80, 101-111.
  • Oppenheimer C, Francis P and Stix J, 1998, Depletion rates of SO2 in tropospheric volcanic plumes, Geophsyical Research Letters, 25, 2671-2674.
  • Oppenheimer C, Francis P, and Maciejewski A, 1998, Volcanic gas measurements by helicopter-borne fourier transform spectroscopy, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 19, 373-379.
  • Oppenheimer C, 1998, Satellite observation of active carbonatite volcanism at Ol Doinyo Lengai, Tanzania, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 19, 55-64.
  • Oppenheimer C, Francis P, and Maciejewski A, 1998, Spectroscopic observation of HCl degassing from Soufriere Hills volcano, Montserrat, Geophysical Research Letters 25, 3689-3692.
  • Young S, Francis PW, Barclay J, Casadevall TJ, Gardner CA, Darroux B, Davies MA, Delmelle P, Norton GE, Maciejewski AJH, Oppenheimer C, Stix J, Watson IM, 1998, Monitoring SO2 emission at the Soufriere Hills volcano: implications for changes in eruptive conditions, Geophysical Research Letters, 25, 3681-3684.


  • Oppenheimer C, 1997, Remote sensing of the colour and temperature of volcanic lakes, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 18, 5-37.
  • Oppenheimer C, 1997, Ramifications of the skin effect for crater lake heat budget analysis, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 75, 159-165.
  • Oppenheimer C, and Francis P, 1997, Remote sensing of heat, lava and fumarole emissions from Erta 'Ale volcano, Ethiopia, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 18, 1661-1692.


  • Francis P, Chaffin C, Maciejewski A, Oppenheimer C, 1996, Remote determination of SiF4 in volcanic plumes: a new tool for volcano monitoring, Geophysical Research Letters 23, 249-252.
  • Oppenheimer C., 1996, Crater lake heat losses estimated by remote sensing, Geophysical Research Letters, 23, 1793-1796.
  • Oppenheimer C, 1996, On the role of hydrothermal systems in the transfer of volcanic sulfur to the atmosphere, Geophysical Research Letters, 23, 2057-2060.
  • Francis P, Maciejewski A, Oppenheimer C, Chaffin C, 1996, New methods make volcanology research less hazardous, EOS, Transactions of the American Geophsyical Union, 77(41), 393-.


  • Francis P, Maciejewski A, Oppenheimer C, Chaffin C, Caltabiano T, 1995, SO2:HCl ratios in the plumes from Mt. Etna and Vulcano determined by Fourier transform spectroscopy, Geophysical Research Letters 22, 1717-1720.
  • Rothery DA, Oppenheimer C, Bonneville A, 1995, Infrared thermal monitoring, in Monitoring active volcanoes (ed. B McGuire, CRJ Kilburn & J Murray), UCL Press, 184-216.


  • Rothery DA, Oppenheimer C, 1994, Monitoring Mount Erebus by satellite remote sensing, in Volcanological Studies of Mount Erebus, Antarctica (ed. PR Kyle, Antarctic Research Series 66, 51-56.


  • Francis PW, Oppenheimer C, Stevenson D, 1993, Endogenous growth of persitently active volcanoes, Nature 366, 554-557.

Article cover

  • Oppenheimer C, 1993, Infrared surveillance of crater lakes using satellite data, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 55, 117-128.
  • Oppenheimer C, 1993, Thermal distributions of hot volcanic surfaces constrained using three infrared bands of remote sensing data, Geophysical Research Letters 20, 431-434.
  • Oppenheimer C, Francis PW, Rothery DA, Carlton RW, Glaze LS, 1993, Infrared image analysis of volcanic thermal features: Láscar volcano, Chile, 1984-1992, Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth 98, 4269-4286.
  • Oppenheimer C, Rothery DA, Francis PW, 1993,. Thermal distributions at fumarole fields: implications for infrared remote sensing of active volcanoes, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 55, 97-115.
  • Oppenheimer C, Rothery DA, Pieri DC, Abrams M, Carrere V, 1993, Analysis of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer data of volcanic hot spots, International J. Remote Sensing 14, 2919-2934.
  • Rothery DA, Borgia A, Carlton RW, Oppenheimer C, 1993, The 1992 Etna lava flow imaged by Landsat TM, Internalional Journal of Remote Sensing 13, 2759-2763.


  • Francis P, Oppenheimer C, 1992, Applications of satellite remote sensing techniques to volcanology, in Understanding the terrestrial environment - the role of observation from space, ed. P. Mather, Taylor and Francis, 37-52.
  • Oppenheimer C, 1992, Sulphur eruptions at Volcán Poás, Costa Rica, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 49, 1-21.


  • Oppenheimer C, 1991, Lava flow cooling estimated from Landsat Thematic Mapper infrared data: The Lonquimay eruption (Chile, 1989), Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth 96, 21865-21878.
  • Oppenheimer C, Rothery DA, 1991, Infrared monitoring of volcanoes by satellite, Journal of the Geological Society of London 148, 563-569.


  • Oppenheimer C, Stevenson D, 1989, Liquid sulphur lakes at Poás volcano, Nature 342: 790-793.

Article cover

  • Smith EGC, Oppenheimer C, 1989, The Edgecumbe earthquake sequence: 1987 February 21 to March 18, New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics 32: 31-42.

Minor refereed papers & correspondence

  • Oppenheimer, C., 2010, We told you so! Reflections on the 'Ashpocalypse', Elements, 6, 205.
  • Galle. B, U. Platt, M. Van Roozendael, C. Oppenheimer, T. Hansteen, G. Boudon. M. Burton, H. Delgado, W. Strauch, E. Duarte, G. Garzon, C. Pullinger. M. Kasereka, M. Molina, S. Carn & P. Ponce, 2009, Red Mundial para la evaluacion de la actividad volcanica y el estudio de los cambios atmosfericos, Boletin de Geologia, UIS.
  • Hansell A, Oppenheimer C., 2002, Review of health hazards from volcanic gases, Epidemiology, 13, 609.
  • Watson, I.M., Oppenheimer, C., 1999, Remote sensing of the optical properties of tropospheric volcanic aerosol plumes. Journal of Aerosol Science 30(1), S561-S562.
  • Oppenheimer C, 1997, Operational volcano monitoring by satellite, Stop Disasters, 32(2), 25-26.
  • Oppenheimer C, 1991, Detecting and monitoring volcanic ash plumes. In EUMETSAT Directory of Meteorological Satellite Applications: section 9.4.
  • Francis PW, Glaze LS, Pieri D, Oppenheimer C, Rothery DA, 1990, Eruption terms, Nature, 346, 519.
  • Rothery D, Oppenheimer C, 1990, Combining Landsat TM infrared data with an air photograph of an eruption of Volcán Arenal (6 February 1986). Boletin del Observatorio Vulcanologico del Arenal, 3(6), 4-8.


  • Murphy, S., de Souza Filho, R., Oppenheimer, C., 2010, The spatial extent of thermal anomalies at Lascar volcano, Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, ISBN 978-1-4244-9566-5,pp. 1557-1560.
  • Bani, P., Oppenheimer, C., Tsanev, V., Lardy, M., Hoibian, T., Allenbach, M. & Rouet, I., 2008, Correlation between SO2 emissions rate and S contained in fuel used in a power plant, Noumea, New Caledonia, Proceedings of the SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, 71490Y (9 pp.), doi:10.1117/12.804902
  • Tsanev, V.I. & Oppenheimer, C., 2006, Optimization of SO2 retrieval in volcanic plumes. Third International DOAS Workshop 2006, 20-22 March 2006, Bremen, Germany (CD edition)
  • Watson, I.M., Oppenheimer, C., 1998, Retrieving aerosol parameters from Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer (AVNIR) multi-spectral images of Mt. Etna's aerosol plume. Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Atmospheric Correction of Satellite Data and its Application to Global Environment, 55-56
  • Oppenheimer C, Pieri D, Carrere V, Abrams M, Rothery D, Francis P., 1992, Volcanic thermal features observed by AVIRIS. Procs 4th Annual AVIRIS Workshop, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, June 1-2, 1992, JPL 92-14, Vol 1, 41-43
  • Rothery DA, Oppenheimer C., 1991 Monitoring volcanoes using short wavelength infrared images. Proc 5th Int Coll Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing, Courchevel, France, 14-18 January 1991, ESA SP-319, 513-516
  • Oppenheimer C, Rothery DA, 1990, Infrared remote sensing of active lava flows: an example from the Lonquimay eruption (Chile) 1989. Procs 16th Conf Remote Sensing Soc, Ed. Coulson MG, University College Swansea, 19-21 September 1990: 102-111
  • Rothery DA, Oppenheimer C., 1990 The potential of imaging spectrometry for measuring surface temperatures and energy budgets of volcanoes. Proc Remote Sensing Soc Workshop, Applications and Developments in Imaging Spectrometry, London, 20 November 1990: pp 70-74
  • Oppenheimer C., 1989, AVHRR volcano hotspot monitoring. Procs 4th AVHRR Data Users' Meeting, Rothenburg, FRG, 3-5 September 1989: 335-338
  • Oppenheimer C, Rothery DA, 1989, Infrared remote sensing of hot volcanoes assessed by field observations. Technical contents 15th Conf Remote Sensing Soc, Eds. Barrett EC and Brown KA, Bristol September 13-15, 1989: 317-322
  • Rothery DA, Oppenheimer C., 1989, Sensor requirements for remote sensing of hot volcanoes. Technical contents 15th Conf Remote Sensing Soc, Eds Barrett EC and Brown KA, Bristol September 13-15, 1989: 359-364

Public engagement

  • The Hidden Hill Festival, June 2013
  • Our explosive past: How humans survived catastrophe, British Museum, June 2013
  • Vesuvius: a volcano, its history and legacy, British Museum (with Andrew Wallace-Hadrill and Iain Stewart), May 2013
  • Museum Lecture, American Museum of Natural History, New York, 2013
  • Cambridge International Summer School, 2012
  • "Thinking Aloud", Wordfest, Cambridge literary festival, 2012
  • Extreme Science, Science Festival, Scott Polar Research Institute, 2012
  • Eruptions that shook the world, Science Festival, University of Cambridge, 2012
  • Prince's Teaching Institute, Royal Geographical Society, 2012
  • Herdman Symposium "Geoscience Frontiers", Liverpool, 2012
  • Frozen Volcano, accompanied photographic exhibition at Michaelhouse, Cambridge, 2012
  • Telegraph Hay Festival, Hay-on-Wye, 2011
  • Rogue Film School ('special guest' of Werner Herzog), London, 2011
  • Oppenheimer, C., 2011, Volcanic ash: dealing with a cloud of unknowing, Guardian Comment is Free,
  • Monday evening lecture, Royal Geographical Society, 2010
  • Armin Linke & Clive Oppenheimer, 2008, Precise and Tolerant (16 min) a four screen video installation (on the subject of volcanism) presented at CERSAIE 2008, Bologna.

    Still from Precise and Tolerant
  • Geological Society of London, invited speaker for bicentennial lecture series, 2007
  • Gordon Manley Lecture, Royal Holloway University of London, 2006
  • Tittel, F.K., Weidmann, D., Oppenheimer, C., and Gianfrani, L., 2006, Laser absorption spectroscopy for volcano monitoring, Optics and Photonics News, May issue, 24-31.
  • Sparks, S., Self, S., Grattan, J., Oppenheimer, C., Pyle, D., and Rymer, H., 2005, Super-eruptions: global effects and future threats. Report of a Geological Society of London Working Group, Geological Society of London, 25pp.

Pamphlet cover

  • Oppenheimer, C., 2003, article-length entries for 'volcano', 'lava landforms' and 'caldera', IAG Encyclopedia of Geomorphology, Routledge.
  • Oppenheimer, C., 2001, Understanding an angry Earth, Times Higher Education Supplement (5 January 2001).
  • Oppenheimer, C., 2001, Rumble from the roll of dice, Times Higher Education Supplement (8 June 2001).
  • Oppenheimer, C., 1996, Volcanism, Geography, 81, 65-81.
  • Oppenheimer, C., 1993, I spy with my infrared eye, New Scientist, 5 June 1993, 26-31.
  • Oppenheimer, C., 1993, Mines in the sky, Geology Today, 9(2), 66-68.
  • Oppenheimer, C., 1991, People and volcanoes: Taal Island, Philippines. Geology Today 7(1), 19-23.
  • Oppenheimer, C., 1990, Monitoring hot spots from space. Geographical Magazine, March, 32-34.
  • Oppenheimer, C., 1990, Sulphurous discoveries. Geographical Magazine, May, 44-46.
  • Oppenheimer, C., 1990, Secrets of Io revealed. Daily Telegraph 41990 (June 25, 1990), 13.
  • Oppenheimer, C. and Stevenson, D., 1990, Des lacs de soufre sur terre. La Recherche 224, 1088-1090.

Photographic exhibitions

  • Frozen Volcano, Michaelhouse, Cambridge, 2012
  • Beauty and Menace (with Peter Baxter), Cambridge University, 2012

TV and radio

  • Countdown to a Catastrophe, contributor and camera work, on location in Antarctica, ZDF, 2013
  • Sleepless Planet Earth, contributor, on location in New Zealand, Korean Broadcasting System, 2013
  • How the Earth was made, contributor, on location in Iceland, Discovery, 2013
  • Volcano Live, contributor, BBC, July 2012
  • The Forum (BBC World Service's flagship discussion show), August 2011.
  • How to build a volcano (National Geographic TV / Discovery Channel, 2011), consultant
  • Contributor, Frozen Planet (BBC, for broadcast in 2011), on location in Antarctica
  • Contributor, Earth's Deadliest Eruption (How the Earth was Made) (The History Channel 2010)

Still from documentary

Still from documentary

  • Contributor, Raging Planet – Volcano (Discovery Channel, 2009), on location in Italy (Mt. Etna and Stromboli) and Indonesia (Kawah Ijen).

Still from Raging PlanetStill from documentaryStill from documentary

  • Film shot on Erebus used in episode of "SOS Antarctique" transmitted 2009, RTBF / La Deux (Belgium):
  • Contributor, consultant, Earth – the Power of the Planet (BBC, 2008), on location in Ethiopia (Erta 'Ale)

Still from documentaryStill from documentaryStill from documentary

  • Contributor, Encounters at the End of the World (Werner Herzog, 2007), on location in Antarctica.

Still from documentaryStill from documentaryStill from documentary

  • Main contributor, Lava Lake (National Geographic TV, 2001), on location in Ethiopia (Erta 'Ale)

Still from documentaryStill from lava lakeStill from documentary

  • Contributor, Under the Volcano (National Geographic TV, 2001), on location in Italy (Mt. Etna)
  • Contributor, Volcanoes (Discovery Channel, 1999), on location in Tanzania (Oldoinyo Lengai)
  • Many contributions to TV and radio news stories and documentaries on volcanoes and eruptions.


  • Geographical Tripos (Undergraduate level) including final year paper in volcanology
  • MPhil in Environmental Science

External activities

  • Associate Editor of Bulletin of Volcanology (2011–)
  • Member of the Steering Committee of the NERC Field Spectroscopy Facility (2011–)
  • Member of Assessment Panel, NERC International Opportunities Fund (2011)
  • Member of steering committee of NERC RESET consortium project (2009–2012)
  • Assessor, RAE Panel UOA17 Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences (2008)
  • Member of NERC Expert Advisory Group Aerosol impacts on the Earth System (2005–6)
  • "Expert member" of International Volcanic Health Hazard Network
  • Founding member of International Volcanic Health Hazard Network (2003–)
  • Advisory committee of Cambridge Interdisciplinary Centre for Risk in the Built Environment (1997–)
  • Steering committee of UNESCO/IUGS Geological Applications of Remote Sensing Programme (1997–2000)
  • Member of Geological Society Working Group Volcanism and Climate Change (2000–2).
  • Advisory committee of DfID/British Council project to develop and introduce an MSc course in remote sensing and GIS at Moscow State University (1999–2002).
  • Editorial board, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research (2002–7)
  • Editorial board, Acta Vulcanologica (2003)
  • Editor, American Geophysical Union Monograph 139 (2002/3)
  • Advisory committee of Sistema Poseidon, Italy, on remote sensing of volcanic clouds (2000).
  • Member of American Geophysical Union (since 1987), Remote Sensing and Photogrammetric Society (since 1989), International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior (since 1996) and European Association of Geochemistry (since 2011); Fellow of the Geological Society of London (since 1998)