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Hans-F. Graf

Hans-F. Graf

Professor for Environmental Systems Analysis



  • Professor for Environmental Systems Analysis, Centre for Atmospheric Science, Dept. Geography, University Cambridge, UK 10/2003 - present
  • Fellow of Clare Hall
  • Senior Scientist and Groupleader ((~4 scientists, ~6 PhD students,) Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology Hamburg, Germany (tenured, comparable to Associate Professor), 1991- 2003
  • Privatdozent [External professor], Division of Geosciences, University Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany, 1991- 2003
  • Scientific Assistant [tenured, comparable to Assistant Professor], Meteorological Institute, Physics Division, Humboldt-University, Berlin, Germany, 1979-1990
  • Industrial Meteorologist (conventional and nuclear environment protection, power plant planning), Kombinat Kraftwerksanlagenbau, Berlin, Germany, 1978-1979
  • Scientific Assistant, Division of Physics, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany, 1974-1978
  • Military Service, 1968-1970


  • Habilitation in General Science, Dr. sc., 1989, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany, Dissertation: "Coupling of Effects of Sea Surface Temperature in Equatorial Latitudes with the Impact of Volcanic Aerosols in the Lower Stratosphere"
  • Ph.D. (Dr. rer.nat.) in Meteorology, 1979, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany, Dissertation: "Effects of Anthropogenic Factors (Especially Urbanization) on Local Climate and Artificial Impacts on Clouds and Precipitation; Numerical Model of Convective Clouds"
  • M.Sc. (Diplom) in Meteorology, 1974, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany. Dissertation: "Persistence of Large -Scale Circulation Modes"


My research has always been a mixture of modelling and data analysis, examining all time and space scales of climate variations, from cloud microphysics up to global general circulation. Recently I have concentrated on processes of relevance to climate change, during the last years more focussed on physico-chemical aspects of climate change, particularly aerosols, stratospheric ozone, and fundamental modes of general circulation. Further I am involved in volcano and biomass burning plume modelling. A relatively new field is the modelling and parameterisation of convective clouds for use in non-cloud resolving models, which allows for consideration of chemistry-aerosol-microphysics processes. I have also currently redirected my interest to a topic I investigated in the 1980s: Different types of El Nino and their effects on climate.

I was P.I. in several German national research programs, the Ozone Program, the Climate Research Program, BALTEX, the German Aerosol Research Focus and Atmospheric Research Programme 2000. I was co-ordinator of the EU FP5 project PARTS and PI in SMOCC and CARBOSOL and P6 projects SCOUT-O3 and ASIA pro ECO INSIDE.

Current grants

  • NERC, 2008-2011, 140K, OP3-Danum consortium (Effects of land use change in Borneo on atmospheric chemistry, specifically convective transport)
  • NERC, 2008-2011, 140K, The lower stratosphere: Interactions with the tropospheric chemistry and dynamics (Investigate the long term effect of injection of sulfur aerosols into the stratosphere to mitigate climate change effects)
  • MPI Hamburg (since 2005 ) and Leverhulme (Co-I with Archaeology Oxford, 2007-2010, 120K), Supervolcano Toba climate effects on human evolution, joint project to study effects of massive volcanic eruptions with Earth System Models
  • DFG, CAWSES-SORACAL with IAP Kuehlungsborn, Germany, 140K, 2006-2009, ext. 140K, 2009-2012, to investigate solar-terrestrial effects via zonally non-symmetric ozone disturbances
  • DFG, TiP (Energy Balance of the Tibetan Plateau) with University Bayreuth (160K), 2008-2010, extended (150K) 2010-2013, Simulation of land use changes on the Tibet Plateau on local energy balance, local cloud fields and larger scale monsoon effects. Big Sino-German research initiative.
  • NERC, Computational Framework for Multiscale Modelling, 2009-2011, 63K, Imperial College London leading. Combination of IMP non-structured grid algorithm with physical concepts and parameterizations of ATHAM model. Final aim is use of adaptive grid techniques to better simulate e.g. topographic effects.
  • EU FP7 Marie-Curie, Coordinator, (200K), 2011-2013:RASHCAST - Radar-based ash monitoring and forecasting by integrating of remote sensing techniques and volcanic plume models.
  • Royal Society, GAIN, collaborative project with Chinese Academy on prediction of climate with respect to stratosphere-troposphere coupling, 2013-1025
  • Co-Chair and UK national representative COST activity "Basic Concepts for Convection Parameterization in Weather Forecast and Climate Models" since 03/2010

PhD students supervised

Bärbel Langmann (1995), Ingo Kirchner (1994), Bettina Loth(1996), Claudia Timmreck (1997), Michael Herzog (1998), Christiane Textor (1999), Judith Perlwitz (2000), Frank Nober (2003), Katrin Walter (2003), Kristof Sturm (2005), Xuefeng Cui (2005), Qian Li (2006), Melissa Pfeffer (2007), Angelika Heil (2007) , Manu Anna Thomas (2008), Rene Hommel (2008), Till Wagner (2009), Shital Shirsat (2009), Alex Hofmann (2013), Tobias Gerken (2013)


Refereed Journal Articles and Book Chapters:

  1. Olberg, M.; Graf, H.-F.; Witschel, W.: Andauerstatistik und Persistenzverhalten der Zirkulationsformen nach Dzerdzeevskij. Z. Meteorol. 26(1976), 25-325-32 (Duration statistics and persistence of circulation modes after Dzerdzeevskij)
  2. Graf, H.-F.: Andauerverhalten und Jahresgang zonaler und meridionaler Zirkulationsformen auf der Nordhemisphäre. Z. Meteorol. 27(1977), 103-106 (Duration and annual course of zonal and meridional circulation forms on the Northern hemisphere)
  3. Graf, H.-F.; Gräfe, I.: Die Niederschlagsverteilung im Raum Berlin in Abhängigkeit von Höhenwetterlage und Bodenwindrichtung. Z. Meteorol. 29(1979), 56-64 (The distribution of precipitationin the Berlin area depending on height weather and surface wind direction)
  4. Graf, H.-F.: Zur Abschätzung des Einflusses der Großstadt auf die Niederschlagsprozesse mit Hilfe eines eindimensionalen Wolkenmodelles. Z. Meteorol. 29(1979), 360-365 (Estimation of the impact of a large city on precipitation processes using a onedimensional cloud model)
  5. Graf, H.-F.: Niederschlagsbeeinflussung im Gebiet einer Großstadt. Abh. Met. Dienst der DDR, 128(1982), 99-105 (Influence on precipitation in a large urban area)
  6. Graf, H.-F.: Zur Anwendung eines thermodynamischen Wolkenmodells auf Probleme der technischen Meteorologie. Abh. Met. Dienst der DDR, 128(1982), 107-113 (On the use of a thermodynamic cloud model to problems of technical meteorology)
  7. Graf, H.-F.: Über Ursachen städtischer Niederschlagsanomalien. Abh. Met. Dienst der DDR, 132(1983), 125-127 (About the causes of urban precipitation anomalies)
  8. Graf ,H.-F.: Zum Einfluß der Rauchgasfeuchte auf die Steighöhe von Schornsteinemissionen. Z. Meteorol. 33(1983), 332-336 (On the influence of smoke humidity on the rise height of stack emissions)
  9. Graf, H.-F.: Eine globale Eigenschwingung des Systems Ozean-Atmosphäre. Z.Meteorol. 35(1985), 223-226 (A global autooscillation of the system ocean-atmosphere)
  10. Graf, H.-F.: On a Northern Hemispheric auto-oscillation of the ocean-atmosphere system. TO-AN, 31(1985), 7-9
  11. Graf, H.-F.: On El Nino/Southern Oscillation and Northern Hemispheric temperature. Gerlands Beitr. Geophys. 95(1986), 63-75
  12. Kirchner, I.; Graf, H.-F.: On wind field, limits of the subtropic high pressure belts and equatorial sea surface temperature. TO-AN, 36(1986), 13-15
  13. Graf, H.-F.: Abkühlung der Nordhemisphare - ein möglicher Trigger für El Nino/ Southern Oscillation Episoden. Naturwissenschaften 73(1986), 258-263 (Cooling of the Northern hemisphere - a possible trigger for El Nino/Southern Oscillation)
  14. Graf, H.-F.; Funke,H.: Blockierungssituationen im europäisch-atlantischen Raum, Teil 1: Phänomenologische Untersuchungen. Z. Meteorol. 36(1986), 104-112 (Blocking situations in the European-Atlantic area, Part 1: Phenomenological investigations)
  15. Graf, H.-F.; Teubner,F., 1988: Zur Berechnung der Obergrenze konvektiver Wolken mit einem eindimensionalen Wolkenmodell. Abh. Meteorol. Dienst der DDR, 140(1988), 83-86 (On the computation of the top height of convective clouds with a one-dimensional cloud model)
  16. Graf, H.-F., 1988: Zur Auslösung von El Nino/Southern Oscillation Ereignissen. Abh. Meteorol.Dienst der DDR, 140 (1988), 101-108 (On the trigger of El Nino/Southern Oscillation events)
  17. Graf, H.-F., 1988: On a global auto-oscillation of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system and possible external impacts. Freiberger Forschungshefte, C 420, 157-167, 1988
  18. Graf, H.-F., 1989: The middle troposphere over Asia prior to and during El Nino/Southern Oscillation events. Z.Meteorol., 39, 1989 , 169-174
  19. Graf, H.-F., 1989: Response of the T21-Atmosphere to a North-Polar global radiation deficit. In: Fischer,G.(Ed.) Climate Simulations with the ECMWF T21-Model in Hamburg. Part III: Diagnosis of Response Experiments. Large Scale Atmospheric Modelling Rpt. No. 7, Hamburg, 1989
  20. Popielas, D.; Graf, H.-F., 1989: Sind Grobgitter GCM's noch von aktueller Bedeutung? Ann. Meteorol. 26, S. 143 (Are coarse grid GCMs still of relevance?)
  21. Graf, H.-F., 1990: Associations of relative vorticity and wind anomalies over the northern hemisphere with the ENSO-cycle. Contr.Phys.Atmosph. 63, 117-127
  22. Graf, H.-F., 1991: Telekonnektionen und El Nino/Südliche Oszillation (ENSO). In "Das Klimasystem der Erde", P.Hupfer, Hrsg., Akademieverlag, Berlin, 1991, 145-156
  23. Graf, H.-F., 1991: Die Wirkung von Vulkaneruptionen im Klimasystem. In "Das Klimasystem der Erde", P.Hupfer, Hrsg., Akademieverlag, Berlin, 1991, 103-116 (The effect of volcanic eruptions in the climate system)
  24. S. Bakan; A. Chlondt; U. Cubasch; J. Feichter; H. Graf; H. Grassl; K. Hasselmann; I. Kirchner; M. Latif; E. Roeckner; R. Sausen; U. Schlese; D. Schriever; I. Schult; U. Schumann; F. Sielmann; W. Welke, 1991: Climate response to smoke from the burning oil wells in Kuwait. Nature, Vol.351, No.6325, 367-371
  25. Graf, H.-F., 1992: Arctic radiation deficit and climate variability. Climate Dynamics, 7, 19-28
  26. Graf, H.-F.; Sausen,R.; Kirchner, I.; Schubert,S., 1992: The Impact of upper-tropospheric aerosol on global atmospheric circulation. Annales Geophysicae, 10, 698-707
  27. Goeber,M.; Herzel, H.P.; Graf, H.-F., 1992: Dimension analysis of El Nino/Southern Oscillation time series. Annales Geophysicae, 10, 729-734
  28. Schult, I. und H.-F. Graf, 1992: Globaler Klimaeffekt von Vulkanaerosol - Aerosolbildung und Strahlungswirkung, UWSF-Z. Umweltchem. Ökotox., 4, 296-302 (Global effect of volcanic aerosol - Aerosol formation and radiative effects)
  29. Graf, H.-F. und I. Schult, 1992: Globaler Klimaeffekt von Vulkanaerosol - Modellierung der globalen Effekte, UWSF-Z. Umweltchem. Ökotox., 4, 368-374 (Global effect of volcanic aerosol - Modelling of global effects)
  30. Graf, H.-F.; I. Kirchner; A. Robock and I. Schult, 1993: Pinatubo eruption winter climate effects: Model versus observation. Climate Dynamics 9, 81-93
  31. Loth, B.; Graf, H.-F., Oberhuber, J.M., 1993: Snow-cover model for global climate simulations. Journ. Geophys. Res. Vol 98, D6, 10,451-10,464
  32. Graf, H.-F.; J. Perlwitz and I. Kirchner, 1994: Northern hemisphere tropospheric mid-latitude circulation after violent volcanic eruptions. Contr. Atmos. Physics, 67, 1, 3-13
  33. Robock, A. and H.-F. Graf, 1994: Effects of pre-industrial human activities on climate. Chemosphere, 29, 1087-1097, 1994
  34. Langmann, B. and Graf, H.-F., 1994: Another Meteorological Driver (HIRHAM) for the Chemistry Transport Model (CTM) of the EURAD-System: First Simulation with the Coupled System. The Proceedings of the EUROTRAC Symposium '94, ed. P.M. Borrell et al., pp. 830-833, Academic Publishing bv., The Hague, The Netherlands
  35. Ulbrich, U.; H.-F. Graf and I. Kirchner, 1995: The impact of El Nino- and volcanic forcing on the atmospheric energy cycle and the zonal mean atmospheric circulation. Contr. Atmos. Phys. 68, 59-74
  36. Graf, H.-F.; J. Perlwitz; I. Kirchner and I. Schult, 1995: On the interrelationship between recent climate trends, ozone changes and increased greenhouse gas forcing. In: NATO ASI Series, Subseries I "Global Environmental Change", Vol. 32, ed. by W.-C. Wang and I.S.A. Isaksen, pp. 163-179
  37. Graf, H.-F., S. Cox, X.-Z. Liang, H. Mao, G. Myhre, P. Rasch, L.P Riishojgaard, K. Shine, I. Thorstensen, G.-X. Wu, I. Yagai, and L. Zetterberg, 1995: Climate Modeling. In: NATO ASI Series, Subseries I "Global Environmental Change", Vol. 32, ed. by W.-C. Wang and I.S.A. Isaksen, pp. 39-46
  38. Kirchner, I. and H.-F. Graf, 1995: Volcanos and El Nino - Signal Separation in winter. Climate Dynamics 11, 341-358
  39. Perlwitz, J. and H.-F. Graf, 1995: The statistical connection between tropospheric and stratospheric circulation of the Northern hemisphere in winter. Journal of Climate Vol.8, No. 10, 2281-2295
  40. Graf, H.-F.; J. Perlwitz; I. Kirchner and I. Schult, 1995: Recent northern winter climate trends, Ozone changes and increased greenhouse forcing. Contr. Atmos. Phys., 68, 233-248, 1995
  41. Graf, H.-F.; J. Perlwitz; I. Kirchner und I. Schult, 1995: Rezente winterliche Klimaänderungen auf der Nordhemisphäre, Ozonänderungen und zunehmender Treibhauseffekt. Ann. Meteorol. 31, 25-26
  42. Kirchner, I. und H.-F. Graf, 1995: Sensitivitätstests zu atmosphärischen Auswirkungen vulkanischen Aerosols in der Atmosphäre als Funktion des Grundzustandes und der Modellauflösung. Ann. Meteorol. 31, 98-99
  43. Graf, H.-F., 1995: Beobachtete und modellierte Klimaveränderungen - Projektionen in die Zukunft. Hamburger Beiträge zur Friedensforschuung und Sicherheitspolitik, Heft 92, 7-29, 8 Abb., Aug. 1995
  44. Timmreck, C., H.-F. Graf, J. Feichter, and I. Schult, 1996: 3D-Simulation of the formation and the development of stratospheric aerosol. Proc. 14th International Conf. Aerosols (ICNNA), Helsinki, Aug. 1996
  45. Denhard, M., Graf, H.-F., Kirchner,I., Schönwiese,Ch.-D, 1996: Volcanic and El Nino signal separation in GCM simulations with neural networks. Contrib. Atmos. Phys., 69, 1996, 285-296
  46. Heintzenberg, J., H.-F. Graf, R.J. Charlson, and P. Warneck, 1996: Climate forcing and the physico-chemical life cycle of the atmospheric aerosol - Why do we need an integrated, interdisciplinary global research programme? Contrib. Atmos. Phys., 69, 1996, 261-272
  47. Graf, H.-F. and B. Langmann,, 1996: Sulfur emissions from Mt. Etna and the impact on the European atmosphere sulfur budget. in: Borrell, P.M., Borrell, P., Cvitas, T., Kelly, K., Seiler, W. (eds.), Proceedings EUROTRAC '96, ed. P.M. Borrell et al., Computational Mechanics Publications, Southhampton, 1996, pp. 7-11.1-11.5
  48. Graf, H.-F.; I. Kirchner and I. Schult, 1996: Modelling Mt. Pinatubo Climate Effects, in: The Mount Pinatubo Eruption: Effects on the Atmosphere and Climate", Eds. G. Fiocco, D. Fua, and G. Visconti, NATO ASI series I, global environmental change: v. 42, Springer Berlin Heidelberg NewYork, 1996 , 219-232
  49. Langmann, B. and H.-F. Graf, 1997: Another meteorological driver (HIRHAM) for the EURAD Chemistry-Transport Model (CTM): Validation and sensitivity studies with the coupled system. in: Transport and chemical evolution of pollutants in the troposphere,Volume 7, A. Ebel, R. Friedrich and H. Rodhe (editors): Tropospheric Modelling and Emission Estimation , 46-51, Springer, Heidelberg, 1997
  50. H.-F. Graf, J. Feichter,and B. Langmann, 1997: Volcanic degassing: Contribution to global sulphate burden and climate. Journ. Geophys. Res., 102, 107227-10738
  51. Langmann, B. and H.-F. Graf, 1997: The chemistry of the polluted atmosphere over Europe: Simulations and sensitivity studies with a regional Chemistry-Transport-Model, Atmospheric Environment, 31, No. 19, 3239-3257
  52. H-F. Graf, J. Perlwitz, and I. Kirchner, 1997: Coupled modes of tropospheric and stratospheric circulation in nature and in models. in: Stratospheric Processes and Their Role in Climate (SPARC), Proceedings of the First SPARC General Assembly, Melbourne, Australia, Dec. 1996, WCRP-99, WMO/TD-No. 814, May 1997,129-132
  53. J. Perlwitz, H.-F. Graf, and I. Kirchner, 1997: Increasing Greenhouse effect and ozone trends. in: Stratospheric Processes and Their Role in Climate (SPARC), Proceedings of the First SPARC General Assembly, Melbourne, Australia, Dec. 1996,WCRP-99, WMO/TD-No. 814, May 1997,461-464
  54. Timmreck, C., J. Feichter, and H.-F. Graf, 1997: Transient simulation of Mt. Pinatubo stratospheric aerosol. in: Stratospheric Processes and Their Role in Climate (SPARC), Proceedings of the First SPARC General Assembly, Melbourne, Australia, Dec. 1996, WCRP-99, WMO/TD-No. 814, May 1997,595-598
  55. Kirchner, I., H.-F. Graf, G.L. Stenchikov, and A. Robock, 1997: ECHAM4 GCM simulations of the climatic response to the 1991 Pinatubo eruption - winter warming confirmed. in: Stratospheric Processes and Their Role in Climate (SPARC), Proceedings of the First SPARC General Assembly, Melbourne, Australia, Dec. 1996, WCRP-99, WMO/TD-No. 814,May 1997, 645-648
  56. G.L. Stenchikov, A. Robock, I. Kirchner, and H.-F. Graf, 1997: Radiative forcing of climate from the 1991 Pinatubo eruption. in: Stratospheric Processes and Their Role in Climate (SPARC), Proceedings of the First SPARC General Assembly, Melbourne, Australia, Dec. 1996, WCRP-99, WMO/TD-No. 814, May 1997, 653-656
  57. Timmreck, C., J. Feichter, H.-F. Graf, I. Kirchner, and E. Manzini, 1997: Interactive Simulation of Mt. Pinatubo stratospheric aerosol. J. Aerosol Sci., Vol. 28, Suppl. 1, S723-S724
  58. Graf, H.-F., I. Kirchner, and J. Perlwitz, 1998: Changing stratospheric circulation: The role of ozone and greenhouse gases. Journ. Geophys. Res., 103, 11.251-11.261
  59. Loth, B. and H.-F. Graf, 1998: Modelling the snow cover in climate studies: Part I: Long-term integrations under different climate conditions using a multi-layer snow cover model. Journ. Geophys. Res., 103, 11.313-11.327
  60. Loth, B. and H.-F. Graf, 1998: Modelling the snow cover in climate studies: Part II: The sensitivity to internal snow parameters and interface processes. Journ. Geophys. Res., 103, 11.329- 11340
  61. Langmann, B., Herzog, M., and Graf, H.-F., 1998: Radiative forcing of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols as dertermined by a regional circulation-chemistry transport model. Atmospheric Environment, 32, 2757-2768.
  62. Graf, H.-F., B. Langmann, and J. Feichter, 1998: The contribution of Earth degassing to the atmospheric sulfur budget. Chemical Geology, 147, 131-145
  63. Sachs, P.M. und H.-F. Graf, 1998: Das Klima und seine Variabilität. Die Rolle der Vulkane. In: Warnsignale aus der Klimaentwicklung (Hrsg. Lozan J.L., Graßl, H., Hupfer, P., Jacob, H., und P. Sterr) Verlag Paul Parey, Berlin und Hamburg, 37-40 (Climate and its variability: The role of volcanoes)
  64. Stenchikov, G.L., I. Kirchner, A. Robock, H.-F. Graf, J.C. Antuna, R. Grainger, A. Lambert, and L. Thomason, 1998: Radiative forcing from the 1991 Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption. MPI Report No. 231, Journ. Geophys. Res., 103, 13,837-13,857
  65. Graf, H.-F., W. Chen, and H. Brix, 1998: The relationship between East Asia winter monsoon and El Nino/Southern Oscillation, Proc. Intenational Conference on the Variability and Predictability of the Asian Monsoon, Xi'an city, China, Sept. 1998, 119-125
  66. Graf, H.-F. and J. Perlwitz, 1998: Secular Variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation. Österreichische Beiträge zur Meteorologie und Geophysik, Nr. 19, 2nd European Conference on Applied Climatology, Vienna, Oct. 1998, CD-ROM
  67. Herzog, M., H.-F. Graf, Ch. Textor, and J. M. Oberhuber, 1998: The effect of phase changes of water on the development of volcanic plumes. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 87, 55-74
  68. Oberhuber, J. M., M. Herzog, H.-F. Graf, and K. Schwanke, 1998: Volcanic plume simulation on large scales. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 87, 29-53
  69. Timmreck, C., H.-F. Graf, and J. Feichter, 1999: Simulation of Mt. Pinatubo aerosol with the Hamburg climate model ECHAM4. Theor. and Appl. Clim. 62, No. 3-4, 85-109
  70. Timmreck, C., H.-F. Graf, I. Kirchner, 1999: A one and a half year interactive simulation of Mt. Pinatubo aerosol. Journ. Geophys. Res., 104, 9337-9369
  71. Kirchner, I., G.L. Stenchikov, H.-F. Graf, A. Robock, and J.C. Antuna, 1999: Climate model simulation of winter warming and summer cooling following the 1991 Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption, Journ. Geophys. Res.,104,19,039-19,055.
  72. Graf, H.-F., M. Herzog, J.M. Oberhuber, and C. Textor, 1999: The effect of environmental conditions on volcanic plume rise. J Geophys Res-Atmos 104: (D20) 24309-24320
  73. Timmreck, C., J. Feichter, and H.-F. Graf, 1999: Stratospheric aerosol simulation with a GCM. J. Aerosol Sci., 30, Suppl. 1, 457-458
  74. Dameris,M., Graf,H.-F., Mauersberger,K., Zellner,R.: Schlussfolgerungen und offene Fragen, in Zellner,R., Peter,Th., Dämmer,K., Quintern,L., 1999: 10 Jahre Deutsche Ozonforschung, Verl. Marketing und Information, Worms, 1999, 120-127
  75. Feser, F., H.-F. Graf, J. Perlwitz, 2000: Secular variability of the coupled tropospheric and stratospheric circulation in the GCM ECHAM3/LSG, Theor. Appl. Clim., 65 1/2, 1-15
  76. Chen W., Graf H.-F., Huang R.H,, 2000: The interannual variability of East Asian winter monsoon and its relation to the summer monsoon, ADV ATMOS SCI 17: (1) 48-60
  77. Perlwitz, J., H.-F. Graf, and R. Voss, 2000: The leading mode of the coupled troposphere-stratosphere winter circulation in different climate regimes. Journ. Geophys. 105,6915-6926.
  78. Graf, H.-F., 2000: Klimaänderungen durch Vulkane, Wechselwirkung, 21, No.101, 27-37, April 2000
  79. Timmreck, C. and H.-F. Graf, 2000: A microphysical model for simulation of stratospheric aerosol in a climate model. Meteorol. Z., 9, 263-282
  80. Perlwitz, J. and H.-F. Graf, 2001: Troposphere-stratosphere dynamic coupling under strong and weak polar vortex conditions. Geophysical Research Letters, 28, 271-274
  81. Perlwitz, J., Graf, H.-F., 2001: The variability of the horizontal circulation in the troposphere and stratosphere - a comparison. Theor. Appl. Climatol. 69, 149-161
  82. Graf, H.-F. and J. Perlwitz, 1999: Multidecadal variability of Northern hemisphere fundamental circulation modes in a 2000 year ocean-atmosphere model run: Implications for climate change assessment. submitted UA-LC PUNA, book publication
  83. Graf, H.-F. and J. Perlwitz, 2001: Changing stratospheric circulation, the greenhouse effect and ozone loss. in: G.Beig (Ed.), Long Term Changes and Trends in the Atmosphere, New Age Intl. limited, Publishers, New Delhi, Bangalore, Calcutta, Chennai, Guwahati, Hyderabat, Lucknow,Mumbai , 136-147
  84. Trentmann, J., M.O. Andreae, H.-F. Graf, P.V. Hobbs, R.D. Ottmar, and T. Trautmann, 2002: Simulation of a biomass burning plume: Comparing model results with observations. Journ. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000410, 2002
  85. Castanheira, J.M., H.-F. Graf, C.C. Da Camara and A. Rocha, 2002: Using a physical reference frame to study global circulation variabilty. J ATMOS SCI 59 (9): 1490-1501 MAY 2002
  86. Halmer M.M., Schmincke H.-U., Graf H.-F.: The annual volcanic gas input into the atmosphere, in particular into the stratosphere: a global data set for the past 100 years. Journal of Volcanology & Geothermal Research. 115(3- 4):511-528, 2002
  87. Graf, H.-F., 2002: Klimaänderungen durch Vulkane , PROMET, 28, Heft 3/4, 138-144
  88. Gillett, N., Graf, H.-F., and T. Osborn, 2002: Climate Change and the North Atlantic oscillation, in AGU Geophysical Monograph Series Vol. 134, The North Atlantic Oscillation: Climatic Significance and Environmental Impact, eddited by J.W. Hurrell, Y. Kushnir, G. Ottersen, and M. Visbek, 193-209
  89. Walter, K., Graf, H.-F., 2002: On the changing nature of the regional connection between the North Atlantic Oscillation and sea surface temperature, J. Geophys. Res., 107 (D17), 4338, doi:10.1029/2001JD000850, 2002
  90. Chen W, Graf H.-F., Takahashi M, 2002: Observed interannual oscillations of planetary wave forcing in the Northern Hemisphere winter, GEOPHYS RES LETT 29 (22): art. no. 2073 NOV 15 2002
  91. Nober, F., H.-F. Graf, and D. Rosenfeld, 2003: Sensitivity of the global circulation to the suppression of precipitation by anthropogenic aerosols. Global and Planetary Change 37 (2003) 57-80
  92. Castanheira, J.M. and H.-F. Graf, 2003: North Pacific - North Atlantic relationships under stratospheric control? J. Geophys. Res., Vol.108, D1, 4036, doi :10.1029/2002JD002754, 2003
  93. The 2002 UNEP/WMO Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion, Cochairs, Scientific Assessment Panel: A.-L. Ajavon, D. Albritton, G. Mégie, R. Watson, Chapter 2: Very Short-Lived Substances, Lead Authors: Malcolm Ko (USA) and Gilles Poulet (France), Coauthors: D. Blake (USA), O. Boucher (France), J. Burkholder (USA), M. Chin (USA), T. Cox (UK), C. George (France), H. Graf (Germany), J. Holton (USA), D. Jacob (USA), K. Law (UK), M. Lawrence (Germany), P. Midgley (Germany), P. Seakins (UK), D. Shallcross (UK), S. Strahan (USA), D. Wuebbles (USA), Y. Yokouchi (Japan)
  94. Langmann, B. and Hans-F. Graf, 2003: Indonesian smoke aerosols from peat fires and the contribution from volcanic sulfur emissions. Geophys. Res. Lett.,30, 11, 1547, doi:10.1029/2002GL016646, 2003
  95. Textor, C., P. M. Sachs, Hans-F. Graf, T.M. Hansteen, 2003: The fate of sulphur and halogen gases in a plinian volcanic plume similar to the Laacher See eruption 12900 a BP in: Volcanic degassing, C. Oppenheimer, D. Pyle, and D.M. Barclay (eds), Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 213, 307-328
  96. M. Herzog, J.M. Oberhuber and H.-F. Graf, 2003: A Prognostic Turbulence Scheme for the Nonhydrostatic Plume Model ATHAM. J. Atmos. Sci., Vol. 60, No. 22, pages 2783--2796, 2003
  97. 100. Textor, Christiane; Graf, Hans-F.; Herzog, Michael; Oberhuber, J. M., 2003: Injection of gases into the stratosphere by explosive volcanic eruptions. J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 108, No. D19, 4606 10.1029/2002JD002987, 09 October 2003
  98. Trentmann, J., M. O. Andreae, and H.-F. Graf, Chemical processes in a young biomass-burning plume, J. Geophys. Res.,108(D22), 4705, doi:10.1029/2003JD003732, 2003.
  99. Chen W., M. Takahashi, and H.-F. Graf, 2003: Interannual variations of stationary planetary wave activity in the northern winter troposphere and stratosphere and their relations to Northern Annular Mode and Sea Surface temperature, J Geophys. Res.-Atmos 108 (D22): 4705 Nov 25, 2003
  100. Timmreck, C., H.-F. Graf and B. Steil (2003), Aerosol chemistry interactions after the Mt. Pinatubo eruption, in: Volcanism and the Earth's Atmosphere, eds. A. Robock and C. Oppenheimer, AGU Monograph, 139, p 213-225.
  101. B. Langmann, H.-F. Graf and A. Heil (2003): Smoke particles from peat fires in Indonesia 1997/1998: A model study, J.Aerosol Science 34, Suppl. 1, 608-610.
  102. Graf, H.-F., 2004: The complex interaction of aerosols and clouds, SCIENCE, Vol.203, 1309-1311, 27 February, 2004
  103. Nober, F.J., and H.-F. Graf, 2004: A new convective cloud field model based on principles of self-organisation. ACP-Discussions, July 2004
  104. Grainger, R. and H.-F. Graf, 2004: GMES-GATO Strategy Report. G.Braathen, N. Harris, and J. Levine (eds.), European Commission, Brussels, Chapter 5: Volcano monitoring and public safety.
  105. Eyring, V. N.R.P. Harris, M. Rex, T.G. Shepherd, D.W. Fahey, J. Austin, M.P. Chipperfield, M. Dameris, P. Forster, A. Gettelmann, H.-F. Graf, T. Nagashima, P.A. Newman, M.J. Prather, J.A. Pyle, R.J. Salawitch, B.D. Santer, amd D. Waugh, 2004: Comprehensive summary on the workshop on "process-oriented validation of coupled chemistry-climate models", SPARC Newsletter, No 23, May 2004
  106. K. Walter, H.-F. Graf, 2005: The North Atlantic variability structure, storm tracks, and precipitation depending on the polar vortex strength, Atmos Chem Physics, 5, 239-248, SRef-ID:1680-7324/acp/2005-5-239
  107. Graf, H.-F. and K. Walter, 2005: Polar vortex controls coupling of North Atlantic ocean and atmosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L01704, doi:10.1029/2004GL020664, 2005
  108. Eyring, V. N.R.P. Harris, M. Rex, T.G. Shepherd, D.W. Fahey, J. Austin, M.P. Chipperfield, M. Dameris, P. Forster, A. Gettelmann, H.-F. Graf, T. Nagashima, P.A. Newman, M.J. Prather, J.A. Pyle, R.J. Salawitch, B.D. Santer, amd D. Waugh, 2005: A strategy for process-oriented validation of coupled chemistry-climate models. BAMS, 86 (8), 1117-+
  109. S. Wurzler (1,5), M. Simmel, K. Diehl, T. Hennig, H. Herrmann, Y. Iinuma, K. Lehmann, A. Massling, F. Stratmann, A. Wiedensohler, G. Zech, K. Zeromskiene (1), R. Posselt (1,6), K. Hungershöfer (2), T. Trautmann (2,7), M. O. Andreae, D. Chand, U. Dusek, G. P. Frank, G. Helas, R. S. Parmar, O. Schmid, T. Winterrath, M. Welling (3), J. Trentmann (3,8), H. F. Graf (4,9), B. Langmann (4), F. Nober (9), C. Textor (4,10), 2004: Impact of vegetation fires on composition and circulation of the atmosphere (EFEU), The EGGS, 16 September 2004
  110. Textor, C., H.-F. Graf, C. Timmreck, and A. Robock: Emissions from volcanoes, in C. Granier, P. Artaxo, C. E. Reeves (eds.), Emissions of Atmospheric Trace Compounds, Advances in Global Change Research, 18, pp. 269-303, 2004.
  111. Nober FJ, Graf HF, 2005: A new convective cloud field model based on principles of self-organisation , ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS 5: 2749-2759 OCT 20 2005
  112. Pfeffer, M.A., B. Langmann, and H.-F. Graf, Atmospheric transport and deposition of Indonesian volcanic emissions, Atmos Chem Physics Discussions, 5, 11861-11897, 2005, SRef-ID: 1680-7375/acpd/2005-5-11861
  113. Timmreck, C., and H.-F. Graf, The initial dispersal and radiative forcing of a Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude super volcano: a model study, Atmos Chem Physics, 6, Page(s) 35-49., 2006, SRef-ID: 1680-7324/acp/2006-6-35
  114. Textor, C., H.-F. Graf, A. Longo, A. Neri, T.E. Ongaro, P. Papale, C. Timmreck, and G.G.J. Ernst, 2005: Numerical simulation of explosive volcanic eruptions from the conduit flow to global atmospheric effects. Annals of Geophysics, 48, 4/5, 817-842, 2005
  115. Walter, K. and H.-F. Graf, 2006: Life cycles of the North Atlantic Teleconnections under strong and weak polar vortex conditions. Q.J.R. Meteorol Soc, 132, no. 615, 467-483, doi:10.1256/qj.05.25
  116. Textor, C., H.-F. Graf, M. Herzog, J.M. Oberhuber, W. I. Rose, G. G. J. Ernst: Volcanic Particles in Explosive Eruption Columns, Part I: Parameterisation of Ash Aggregation, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 150 (2006), 359-377
  117. Textor, C., H.-F. Graf, M.Herzog, J.M. Oberhuber, W. I. Rose, G. G. J. Ernst: Volcanic Particles in Explosive Eruption Columns, Part II: Numerical Experiments, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 150 (2006), 378-394
  118. Stenchikov, G., K. Hamilton, R. J. Stouffer, A. Robock, V. Ramaswamy, B. Santer, and Hans-F. Graf (2006), Arctic Oscillation response to volcanic eruptions in the IPCC AR4 climate models, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D07107, doi:10.1029/2005JD006286.
  119. Luderer,G., Trentmann, J, Winterrath, T, Textor, Ch., Herzog, M., Graf, H.-F., and Andreae, M.O., 2006: Modeling of biomass smoke injection into the lower stratosphere by a large forest fire (part II): Sensitivity studies, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 0000, 0001-, 2006, www.atmos-chem 1680-7375/acpd/2006-0000-0001, European Geosciences Union
  120. J. Trentmann, G. Luderer, T. Winterrath, M. D. Fromm, R. Servranckx, C. Textor, M. Herzog, H.-F. Graf, M. O. Andreae, Modeling of biomass smoke injection into the lower stratosphere by a large forest fire (Part I): Reference simulation, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 6, 6041-6080, 2006
  121. Pfeffer MA, Langmann B, Graf HF, Atmospheric transport and deposition of Indonesian volcanic emissions , ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS 6: 2525-2537 JUN 30 2006
  122. Graf, H.-F. and J. Yang, 2006: Evaluation of a new convective cloud field model: Precipitation over the Maritime Continent, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 6, 10217-10246, 2006,, in final form: H.-F. Graf and J. Yang , 409 Evaluation of a new convective cloud field model: precipitation over the maritime continent
    Page(s) 409-421. SRef-ID: 1680-7324/acp/2007-7-
  123. Li, Q., H.-F. Graf, M. A. Giorgetta, 2006: Stationary planetary wave propagation in Northern Hemisphere winter - climatological analysis of the refractive index, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 6, 9033-9067, 2006, final form: Stationary planetary wave propagation in Northern Hemisphere winter: Climatological analysis of the refractive index. Q. Li , HF Graf and MA Giorgetta
  124. Cui, X.F., H-F. Graf, B. Langmann, W. Chen, and R-H. Huang, 2006: Climate impacts of anthropogenic land use changes on the Tibetan Plateau. Global and Planetary Change 54 33-56, 2006
  125. Gabriel, A, D. Peters, I. Kirchner and H.-F. Graf: The effect of zonally asymmetric stratospheric ozone on large-scale dynamics and planetary wave propagation in the tropo-, strato- and mesosphere, Geophysical Research Letters, 2007, VOL. 34, L06807, doi:10.1029/2006GL028998,2007
  126. Lu, H., M. J. Jarvis, Hans-F. Graf, P. C. Young, and R. B. Horne (2007), Atmospheric temperature responses to solar irradiance and geomagnetic activity, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D11109, doi:10.1029/2006JD007864.
  127. Graf, H.-F., Q. Li, and M.A. Giorgetta, 2007: Volcanic effects on climate: Revisiting the mechanisms. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 4503-4511, 2007
  128. Xuefeng Cui, Baerbel Langmann, and Hans-F. Graf, 2007: Summer Monsoonal Rainfall Simulation on the Tibetan Plateau with a Regional Climate Model Using a One-way Double-nesting System, SOLA, 2007, Vol. 3, 049-052, doi:10.2151/sola.2007-013
  129. Cui, X.F., H-F. Graf, B. Langmann, W. Chen, and R-H. Huang, 2005: Hydrological impacts of deforestation at the Southeast Tibetan Plateau: A model studyEarth Interaction, Volume 11 (2007) • Paper No. 15 • Page 1-18
  130. Thomas, M. A., C. Timmreck, M. Giorgetta, H. Graf, and G. Stenchikov, Simulation of the climate impact of Mt. Pinatubo eruption using ECHAM5 – Part 1: Sensitivity to the modes of atmospheric circulation and boundary conditions, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 757-769, 2009
  131. J. M. Castanheira,1 M. L. R. Liberato,2 C. A. F. Marques,1 and H.-F. Graf, 2007: Bridging the Annular Mode and North Atlantic Oscillation paradigms, JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 112, D19103, doi:10.1029/2007JD008477, 2007
  132. H.-F. Graf, J. Yang, and T. M. Wagner:Aerosol effects on clouds and precipitation during the 1997 smoke episode in Indonesia. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 743-756, 2009.
  133. Cui, Xuefeng and H-F. Graf, 2009: Recent land cover changes on the Tibetan Plateau. Climatic Change, 94 , 1-2, 47-61
  134. Castanheira, JM; Liberato, MLR; de la Torre, L, H-F Graf, 2009: Baroclinic Rossby Wave Forcing and Barotropic Rossby Wave Response to Stratospheric Vortex Variability, JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 66 , 4 , 902-914
  135. Shirsat S. V. and H. F. Graf, 2009: An emission inventory of sulfur from anthropogenic sources in Antarctica, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 3397-3408, 2009
  136. Thomas, M. A., M. Giorgetta, C. Timmreck, H. Graf, and G. Stenchikov, Simulation of the climate impact of Mt. Pinatubo eruption using ECHAM5 – Part 2: Sensitivity to the phase of the QBO and ENSO, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 3001-3009, 2009
  137. Castanheira, JM; Liberato, MLR; de la Torre, L, , H.-F. Graf, and A. Rocha, Annular versus nonannular variability of the northern hemisphere atmospheric circulation JOURNAL OF CLIMATE, 21, 13, 3180-3190, 2008
  138. Niemeier, U., Timmreck, C., Graf, H.-F., Kinne, S., Rast, S., and Self, S.: Initial fate of fine ash and sulfur from large volcanic eruptions, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 9043-9057, 2009,
  139. Andrew Tupper, Christiane Textor, Michael Herzog, Hans-F. Graf, Michael S. Richards, 2009: Tall clouds from small eruptions: modelling the sensitivity of eruption height and fine ash fallout to tropospheric instability. Natural Hazards, DOI 10.1007/s11069-009-9433-9, Nov 2009
  140. Juliane L. Fry, Hans-F Graf, Richard Grotjahn, Marilyn N. Raphael, Clive Saunders, and Richard Whitaker: The Encyclopedia of Weather and Climate Change, A Complete Visual Guide, University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London, 2010, 512 pp.
  141. H.-F. Graf, S. V. Shirsat, C. Oppenheimer, M. J. Jarvis, R. Podzun, and D. Jacob, Continental Scale Antarctic deposition of sulphur and black carbon from anthropogenic and volcanic sources, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 2457-2465, 2010
  142. Hommel, R., Timmreck, C., and Graf, H. F.: The global middle-atmosphere aerosol model MAECHAM5-SAM2: comparison with satellite and in-situ observations, Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 3, 1359-1421, doi:10.5194/gmdd-3-1359-2010, 2010.
  143. Herzog, M., and Hans-F. Graf (2010), Applying the three-dimensional model ATHAM to volcanic plumes: Dynamic of large co-ignimbrite eruptions and associated injection heights for volcanic gases, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L19807, doi:10.1029/2010GL044986.
  144. R. Hommel and H-F Graf, Modelling the size distribution of geoengineered stratospheric aerosols, Atm Sci Lett, 2010, DOI: 10.1002/asl.285
  145. T.M. Wagner and H-F Graf, An ensemble cumulus parameterization with explicit cloud treatment, Journ. Atmos. Sci,
  146. M. A. Pfeffer, B. Langmann, A. Heil, and H.-F. Graf, 2010: . Numerical simulations examining the possible role of anthropogenic and volcanic emissions during the 1997 Indonesian fires. Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health, 1-16, 2010
  147. Claudia Timmreck, Hans-F. Graf, Stephan J. Lorenz, Ulrike Niemeier, Davide Zanchettin, Daniela Matei, Johann H. Jungclaus and Thomas J. Crowley, 2010: Aerosol size cofines climate response to volcanic super-eruptions, GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 37, doi:10.1029/2010GL045464,
  148. Li Q, Graf H, Cui X: The role of stationary and transient planetary waves in the maintenance of stratospheric polar vortex regimes in Northern Hemisphere winter, Advances in Atmospheric Sciences 28(1):187-194 2011
  149. Wagner TM, Graf HF, Herzog M, Comments on "An Ensemble Cumulus Convection Parameterization with Explicit Cloud Treatment'' Reply, J ATMOS SCI 68(7):1545-1546 Jul 2011
  150. Hommel, R., Timmreck, C., and Graf, H. F.: The global middle-atmosphere aerosol model MAECHAM5-SAM2: comparison with satellite and in-situ observations, Geosci. Model Dev., 4, 809-834, doi:10.5194/gmd-4-809-2011, 2011.
  151. Claudia Timmreck, Hans-F. Graf, Davide Zanchettin, Stefan Hagemann, Thomas, Kleinen, Kirstin Krüger: Climate response to the Toba super-eruption: regional changes, Quarternay International, available online 18 October 2011, doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2011.10.008
  152. Zanchettin, D.1*, C. Timmreck2, H.-F. Graf3, A. Rubino4, S. Lorenz1, K. Lohmann1, K. Krueger5, J. H. Jungclaus1, Bi-decadal variability excited in the coupled ocean-atmosphere system by strong tropical volcanic eruptions, in press, Climate Dynamics, 2011
  153. Graf H-F, D. Zanchettin, Central Pacific El Nino, the "subtropical bridge" and Eurasian Climate, JGR Atmospheres, 117, (D1), doi:10.1029/2011JD016493. 2012
  154. Yano, J.–I., H.-F. Graf, and F. Spineanu, 2012: Meeting report: Theoretical and operational implications of atmospheric convective organization. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00178.1
  155. Gerken T, Babel W, Hoffmann A, Biermann T, Herzog M, Friend AD, Li M, Ma Y, Foken T, Graf H: Turbulent flux modelling with a simple 2-layer soil model and extrapolated surface temperature applied at Nam Co Lake basin on the Tibetan Plateau, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 16(4):1095-1110 2012
  156. Diemberger H, Hastrup K, Schaffer S, Kennel CF, Sneath D, Bravo M, Graf H, Hobbs J, Davis J, Nodari ML, et al. Communicating climate knowledge proxies, processes, politics. Current Anthropology 53(2):226-244 2012
  157. 159. Pfeffer, Melissa Anne; Langmann, Baerbel; Heil, Angelika; Graf, H.-F., et al., Numerical simulations examining the possible role of anthropogenic and volcanic emissions during the 1997 Indonesian fires, AIR QUALITY ATMOSPHERE AND HEALTH, 5, 277-292 DOI: 10.1007/s11869-010-0105-4 , 2012